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AS 2187.2-2006 explosives - storage and use - use of explosives

Standard Number:  AS 2187.2-2006
Title:  explosives - storage and use - use of explosives
Language:  English
Publication Date:  2006/2/2
Status:  Current
International Classification for Standards (ICS)CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY>>Products of the chemical industry>>Explosives. Pyrotechnics
Publisher:  Australia Standards(AS)
Price:  
Number of Pages:133P.;A4  

Description:Specifies requirements for the safe use of explosives including the mixing, testing, initiation and firing of charges. The Standard also provides information on misfires as well as considerations such as ground vibration and airblast. Special topics incl  
Catalog:Document Contents
AS 2187.2-2006 EXPLOSIVES-STORAGE AND USE - USE OF EXPLOSIVES
PREFACE
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
1.2 APPLICATION
1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
1.4 DEFINITIONS
1.4.1 Airblast
1.4.2 Airblast overpressure
1.4.3 Amplitude
1.4.4 A-weighting
1.4.5 Bar down
1.4.6 Blasthole
1.4.7 Branch line
1.4.8 Close proximity
1.4.9 Competent person
1.4.10 Component velocity
1.4.11 C-weighting
1.4.12 Damage
1.4.13 Deflagrating
1.4.14 Downline
1.4.15 Electric detonator
1.4.16 Electronic detonator
1.4.17 Fly
1.4.18 Flyrock
1.4.19 Fourier transform
1.4.20 Ground vibration
1.4.21 Human comfort
1.4.22 Lead-in line
1.4.23 On-site
1.4.24 Overpressure
1.4.25 Particle velocity
1.4.26 Peak component particle velocity
1.4.27 Powder factor
1.4.28 Primer
1.4.29 Remote firing
1.4.30 Scale
1.4.31 Shock wave
1.4.32 Shotfirer
1.4.33 Signal tube
1.4.34 Signal tube starter
1.4.35 Source of ignition
1.4.36 Sound level meter
1.4.37 Sound pressure level (dB)
1.4.38 Trunkline
1.4.39 USBM
1.4.40 Vector peak particle velocity (VPPV)
1.4.41 Zero-crossing frequency
1.5 REGULATORY AUTHORITIES
SECTION 2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
2.1 RISK
2.2 PLANNING
2.3 EXECUTION
2.4 SOURCES OF IGNITION NEAR EXPLOSIVES
2.5 BLAST EQUIPMENT
2.6 REPORTING OF THEFT OR LOSS OF EXPLOSIVES
2.7 REPORTING OF DAMAGE OR INJURY
2.7.1 Damage to property
2.7.2 Injury or death to person(s)
2.7.3 Damage to the environment
2.8 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
SECTION 3 ON-SITE MANUFACTURE OF EXPLOSIVES
3.1 GENERAL
3.2 MATERIALS
3.3 FIRE PRECAUTIONS ON MIXING SITES
3.4 MIXING APPLIANCES AND BUILDINGS
3.4.1 Appliances
3.4.2 Mobile mixing units
3.4.3 On-site mixing-house buildings
3.5 MANUFACTURE OF ANFO
3.5.1 General
3.5.2 Materials
3.5.3 Mixing of ANFO
3.6 STORAGE OF ON-SITE MANUFACTURED EXPLOSIVES
SECTION 4 PLANNING
4.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
4.2 BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN
4.3 ADMINISTRATION AND LEGISLATION
4.4 SAFETY AND SECURITY
4.5 BLASTING HISTORY AND CONSULTATION
4.6 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GEOLOGY
4.7 RESPONSIBILITIES
4.8 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
4.9 GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
4.9.1 Working at or below heights
4.9.2 Services
4.9.3 Environmental hazards
4.10 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS
4.11 BLAST DESIGN
SECTION 5 BLAST PREPARATION
5.1 BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN
5.2 BLAST AREA PREPARATION AND ACCESS
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Access
5.2.3 Pattern markout
5.2.4 Hole diameter
5.2.5 Pre-drilling examination
5.2.6 Drilling
5.2.7 Drilling in cut-offs or butts
5.2.8 Prevention of blasthole blockage
SECTION 6 OPERATIONS PRIOR TO CHARGING
6.1 BLAST AREA MANAGEMENT
6.1.1 Blast management plan
6.1.2 Charging material availability
6.1.3 Blast area inspection
6.1.4 Environmental conditions
6.1.5 Precautions at site
6.1.6 Traffic management
6.1.7 Blasthole measuring
6.1.8 Loading sequence
6.1.9 Sleeping
6.1.10 Night loading or poor visibility
6.2 PNEUMATIC CHARGING
6.3 PREPARATION OF CHARGES
6.3.1 Capping safety fuse
6.3.2 Testing electric detonators
6.3.3 Preparation of primers
6.4 BOOSTERS/PACKAGED PRODUCTS
6.4.1 Cutting of cartridges
6.4.2 Location of primer
6.5 SURFACE CHARGING
6.5.1 General requirements
6.5.2 Charging wet blastholes
SECTION 7 CHARGING
7.1 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
7.2 PRECAUTIONS AT SITE
7.3 BLASTHOLES (CLEANLINESS)
7.4 INSERTION OF CHARGE
7.4.1 Procedure
7.4.2 Free-flowing granular explosives
7.4.3 Cutting of cartridges
7.4.4 Location of primer
7.4.5 Pumpable explosives
7.5 STEMMING
7.5.1 Stemming material
7.5.2 Tamping rods
7.5.3 Tamping of stemming material
7.5.4 Precautions
7.6 BULLING
SECTION 8 METHOD OF INITIATION
8.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
8.1.1 Risk management
8.1.2 Allocation of responsibilities
8.1.3 Connections
8.2 METHOD OF INITIATION
8.2.1 Selection of initiation method
8.2.2 Electronic detonator systems
8.2.3 Non-electric firing
8.2.4 Electric firing
8.2.5 Remote firing
8.3 FIRING
SECTION 9 POST BLAST PROCEDURES
9.1 GENERAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
9.1.1 Blast management plan
9.1.2 Assessment prior to a post-blast inspection
9.2 SHIFTWORK
9.3 ELECTRIC FIRING
9.3.1 Electric firing with exploder and electronic firing
9.3.2 Mains firing
9.3.3 Remote firing
9.4 POST-BLAST INSPECTION
9.5 SITE HOUSEKEEPING
SECTION 10 MISFIRES
10.1 DETERMINATION OF MISFIRES
10.2 MISFIRE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
10.3 TREATMENT OF MISFIRES
10.3.1 General
10.3.2 Waiting intervals
10.3.3 Treatment
10.3.4 Removal of stemming
10.3.5 Firing of a new blasthole in vicinity
SECTION 11 DESTRUCTION OF DEFECTIVE AND SURPLUS EXPLOSIVES
11.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
11.1.1 Instigation
11.1.2 Records
11.1.3 Residues
11.2 METHODS OF DESTRUCTION
11.2.1 General
11.2.2 Explosives other than detonators
11.2.3 Detonators
11.2.4 Other explosives
SECTION 12 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
12.1 EXTRANEOUS ELECTRICITY
12.1.1 General
12.1.2 Atmospheric electrical activity
12.1.3 Direct contact with electrical conductors
12.1.4 Induced currents and stray currents
12.1.5 Static electricity
12.2 GROUND VIBRATION AND AIRBLAST OVERPRESSURE
12.3 FLY
12.4 BLASTING UNDER WATER
12.4.1 Precautions
12.4.2 Detonators
12.4.3 Junctions
12.4.4 Exploder key or handle
12.5 USE OF EXPLOSIVES IN AN ATMOSPHERE GREATER THAN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
12.5.1 General
12.5.2 Storage
12.5.3 Transport into working chamber
12.5.4 Method of initiation
12.5.5 Testing of electric detonators
12.5.6 Effect of increased gas pressures on structural integrity
12.5.7 Firing, before and after
12.6 BLASTING IN HOT MATERIAL
12.6.1 General
12.6.2 Temperature measurement
12.6.3 Types of explosives
12.6.4 Misfires
12.7 HIGH TEMPERATURE BLASTING
12.8 DEMOLITION
12.9 BLASTING IN OXIDIZING GROUND
12.10 LASER HAZARDS
APPENDIX A - BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN AND RECORDS
A1 INTRODUCTION
A2 BLAST MANAGEMENT PLAN
A2.1 Purpose
A2.2 Contents
A3 BLAST RECORDS
A4 TUNNEL AND MINE DEVELOPMENT BLAST RECORD
A5 DEMOLITION OF STRUCTURES
APPENDIX B - EQUIPMENT FOR ELECTRICAL FIRING
B1 GENERAL
B2 APPROVAL OF EQUIPMENT
B3 CARE OF EQUIPMENT
B4 CIRCUIT TESTER
B5 EXPLODER
B5.1 Maintenance
B5.2 Routine testing
B5.3 Construction
B5.4 Labelling
B5.5 Electrical design features
B6 RHEOSTAT
B7 FIRING CABLE
APPENDIX C - FIRE PRECAUTIONS
C1 GENERAL
C2 AMMONIUM NITRATE
C3 EXPLOSIVES
APPENDIX D - PREPARATION OF PRIMERS
D1 PRIMING
D2 METHODS
APPENDIX E - FLYROCK AND FLY
E1 INTRODUCTION
E2 FLYROCK FORMATION
E2.1 Contributing factors
E2.2 Weak rock structure
E2.3 Front row blasthole burdens
E2.4 Stemming depth
E2.5 Initiation sequence
E2.6 Blasthole diameter
E2.7 Stemming material
E3 FLYROCK CONTROL
E3.1 General
E3.2 Examination of blast site and surveying of blast faces and blastholes
E3.3 Charge configuration and loading procedure
E3.4 Stemming medium
E3.5 Initiation
E3.6 Blast pattern shape and alignment
E3.7 Protective cover
E4 FLY FORMATION
APPENDIX F - FIRING CIRCUIT CONNECTIONS
F1 ELECTRIC FIRING
F1.1 Series connection
F1.2 Parallel connection
F1.3 Series-in-parallel connection
F1.4 Parallel-in-series connection
F1.5 Connection and testing of electrical firing circuits
F2 DETONATING CORD
F3 SIGNAL TUBE
APPENDIX G - DETERIORATION OF EXPLOSIVES
G1 GENERAL
G2 WATER-GEL EXPLOSIVES
G3 EMULSION EXPLOSIVES
G4 NITROGLYCERINE/NITROGLYCOL-BASED EXPLOSIVE
G5 DETONATORS
APPENDIX H - DESTRUCTION OF EXPLOSIVES (OTHER THAN DETONATORS) BY BURNING
H1 METHOD
H1.1 Procedure for cartridged explosives and cast boosters
H1.2 Variations for other explosives
APPENDIX I - EXTRANEOUS ELECTRICITY
I1 SCOPE
I2 SOURCES OF EXTRANEOUS ELECTRICITY
I3 GENERAL PREVENTIVE MEASURES
I4 STRAY CURRENTS
I4.1 General
I4.2 Testing for stray currents
I5 STATIC ELECTRICITY
I5.1 General
I5.2 Dusty conditions, snowstorms
I5.3 Other static electric hazards
I5.4 Pneumatic loading of free-flowing granular explosives
APPENDIX J - GROUND VIBRATION AND AIRBLAST OVERPRESSURE
J1 INTRODUCTION
J2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PHENOMENA
J2.1 Ground vibration
J2.2 Airblast
J3 MEASUREMENT
J3.1 General
J3.2 Ground vibration
J3.3 Airblast
J3.4 Blast monitoring records
J4 GROUND VIBRATION LEVELS
J4.1 General
J4.2 Ground vibration
J4.3 Human comfort limits
J4.4 Damage limits
J4.5 Recommended ground vibration limits
J5 AIRBLAST LEVELS
J5.1 General
J5.2 Human comfort limits
J5.3 Damage limits
J5.4 Recommended airblast limits
J6 OPERATING PRACTICE
J6.1 General
J6.2 Ground vibration
J6.3 Airblast reduction
J6.4 Blasting complaints
J7 ESTIMATION OF GROUND VIBRATION AND AIRBLAST LEVELS
J7.1 Introduction
J7.2 Airblast overpressure
J7.3 Ground vibration
J8 BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX K - DEMOLITION OF STRUCTURES
K1 GENERAL
K2 PRINCIPAL CONSIDERATIONS
K3 NOTIFICATION
K4 EXAMINATION OF THE STRUCTURE
K5 EXAMINATION OF THE SURROUNDING AREA
K6 DEMOLITION BLAST PLAN
K7 CONTINGENCY PLANNING
K8 EXPLOSIVES
K9 INITIATION SYSTEMS
APPENDIX L - EXCLUSION ZONES
L1 GENERAL
L2 PLANNING
L3 SIZE OF THE EXCLUSION ZONE
L4 ESTABLISHING AND DISESTABLISHING THE ZONE
L5 SPECTATORS
  
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