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AS 4458-1997 pressure equipment - manufacture

Standard Number:  AS 4458-1997
Title:  pressure equipment - manufacture
Language:  English
Replacing Standard:  DR 94387

Publication Date:  1997/6/5
Execute Date:  1997/6/5
Status:  Current
Publisher:  Australia Standards(AS)
Price:  
Number of Pages:93P.;A4  

Description:sets out requirements for the manufacture of pressure equipment as specified in the application standards as 1210, as 1228 and as 4041. fabrication, heat treatment, forged construction, cast construction and testing are covered.  
Catalog:Document Contents
AS 4458-1997 PRESSURE EQUIPMENT - MANUFACTURE
PREFACE
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
1.2 APPLICATION
1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
1.4 DEFINITIONS
1.4.1 Construction
1.4.2 Designer
1.4.3 Fabrication
1.4.4 Fabrication inspection body
1.4.5 Inspector
1.4.6 Manufacturer
1.4.7 May
1.4.8 Parties concerned
1.4.9 Pipe
1.4.10 Pressure equipment
1.4.11 Shall
1.4.12 Should
1.4.13 Tube
SECTION 2 MATERIAL GROUPING
SECTION 3 DRAWINGS AND PRODUCT QUALITY
3.1 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS
3.2 COMPETENCE OF MANUFACTURER
3.3 MANUFACTURE AND WORKMANSHIP
3.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE
3.5 INDEPENDENT INSPECTION
3.6 REPORTS
SECTION 4 MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION
4.1 GENERAL
4.2 TYPES OF IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIALS
4.3 MATERIAL NOTFULLY IDENTIFIED
4.4 IDENTIFICATION AND MARKING
4.4.1 Identification
4.4.2 Transfer of marks
4.4.3 Method of marking
4.5 DEFECTS IN MATERIALS
SECTION 5 MATERIAL CUTTING
5.1 GENERAL
5.2 THERMAL CUTTING
5.3 MECHANICAL CUTTING AND EDGE PREPARATION
5.4 EDGE EXAMINATION
5.5 EDGE FINISH
SECTION 6 FORMING OF PRESSURE EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS
6.1 GENERAL
6.2 HOT FORMING OF PRESSURE EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS
6.2.1 Ferritic steels - Material groups A to G
6.2.2 High alloy steels - Groups H to M steels
6.2.3 Non-ferrous metals
6.2.4 Plates or pipes welded prior to hot forming
6.3 COLD FORMING OF PRESSURE EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS FROM PLATES AND SECTIONS
6.3.1 Ferritic steels - Plates and sections - Material groups A to G
6.3.2 Austenitic and austenitic-ferritic steels (groups K and M steels)
6.3.3 Non-ferrous metals
6.3.4 Plates welded prior to cold forming
6.4 COLD FORMING OF PIPES AND TUBES
6.4.1 Cold formed bends in pipes and tubes (except for boiler, superheater, reheater and ...
6.4.2 Cold formed tubes for boiler components
6.4.3 Cold swaging upsetting and expanding
6.4.4 Cold formed bends for heat exchangers
6.4.5 Heat treatment after cold forming of pipes and tubes
6.5 INDUCTION BENDING OF PIPES
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Bending procedure
6.5.3 Procedure qualification testing
6.5.4 Production bends
6.6 REPAIR OF SURFACE IMPERFECTIONS AFTER FORMING
SECTION 7 DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES ON FORMED COMPONENTS AND PRESSURE EQUIPMENT
7.1 GENERAL
7.2 TOLERANCES ON SHELL AND ENDS OF PRESSURE VESSELS AND BOILERS
7.2.1 Circumference of cylindrical shells
7.2.2 Circularity of cylindrical shells subject to internal pressure
7.2.3 Circularity of cylindrical shells subject to external pressure
7.2.4 Straightness of cylindrical shells
7.2.5 Profile of dished ends
7.2.6 Profile of spherical or other vessels
7.2.7 Measurement of circularity and deviation in profile
7.2.8 Correction of profile
7.3 GENERAL DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES ON HEAT EXCHANGERS
7.4 DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES FOR BOILER TUBES AFTER BENDING
7.4.1 General
7.4.2 Thinning on tube bends
7.4.3 Ovality
7.5 DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES FOR PIPE AND TUBE AFTER BENDING
7.5.1 General
7.5.2 Thickness
7.5.3 Radii of pipe bends
7.5.4 Ovality
SECTION 8 WELDED CONSTRUCTION- ASSEMBLY OF JOINTS PRIOR TO WELDING
8.1 GENERAL
8.2 ASSEMBLY OF PARTS FOR WELDING
8.3 WELDED JOINTS - BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSELS
8.3.1 Alignment tolerances
8.3.2 Number of joints
8.3.3 Location of joints
8.4 WELDED JOINTS - PIPING
8.4.1 Butt welds
8.4.2 Mitre, cut and shut bends
8.4.3 Flange joints
8.4.4 Branch welds
8.4.5 Socket welds
8.4.6 Sleeve, bell and spigot joints
8.4.7 Location of joints
SECTION 9 WELDING QUALIFICATIONS, CONSUMABLES AND EQUIPMENT
9.1 GENERAL
9.2 WELDING PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION
9.3 WELDING PERSONNEL
9.3.1 Competence of welding supervisors
9.3.2 Competence of welders
9.4 RECORD OF WELDERS
9.5 WELDING CONSUMABLES AND EQUIPMENT
9.5.1 Electrodes, filler wire and weld materials
9.5.2 Shielding gases and gas mixtures
9.5.3 Fuel gases and oxygen
9.5.4 Welding processes
9.5.5 Welding plant and equipment
9.5.6 Storage and handling of covered electrodes
9.5.7 Storage and handling of electrode wire, filler wire and flux
SECTION 10 WELDING PREHEAT
10.1 GENERAL
10.2 METHOD OF PREHEATING
10.3 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
10.4 CONTINUITY OF PREHEAT DURING WELDING
10.5 INTERRUN TEMPERATURES
10.6 PREHEAT TEMPERATURE
10.6.1 Steels
10.6.2 Non-ferrous metals
10.6.3 Dissimilar metal joints
10.6.4 Different material thicknesses
SECTION 11 WELDED JOINTS
11.1 CONDITIONS FOR WELDED JOINTS PRIOR TO AND DURING WELDING
11.2 STRIKING OF ARC
11.3 INTERRUN CLEANING
11.4 SURFACE OF FINISHED WELD
11.5 PEENING OF WELDS
11.6 REMOVAL OF TEMPORARY ATTACHMENTS AND ARC STRIKES
11.7 WELD REPAIRS
11.8 THERMAL STRAIGHTENING
11.9 STRUCTURAL WELDING
SECTION 12 NON-WELDED JOINTS
12.1 GENERAL
12.2 THREADED JOINTS
12.3 FLANGED JOINTS
12.4 FLARED, FLARELESS AND COMPRESSION JOINTS
12.5 CAULKED JOINTS
12.6 SPECIAL FITTINGS
SECTION 13 WELD NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION AND REPAIR
13.1 GENERAL
13.2 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION
13.3 REPAIR TO WELDS AND COMPONENTS
13.4 PRODUCTION TEST PLATES
SECTION 14 HEAT TREATMENT
14.1 GENERAL
14.2 TYPES OF HEAT TREATMENT
14.3 PRESSURE EQUIPMENT REQUIRING POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT
14.4 STAGE OF POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT
14.5 THICKNESS FOR POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT
14.5.1 General
14.5.2 Special increase in thickness for group A1 steels
14.6 METHODS OF HEATING
14.6.1 Enclosed furnace
14.6.2 Overlapping sections
14.6.3 Separate sections
14.6.4 Circumferential bands
14.6.5 Internal heating
14.6.6 Components of varying thickness
14.6.7 Heating of local areas on spheres and dished ends
14.6.8 Branches
14.7 POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT PROCEDURE FOR FERRITIC STEELS
14.8 REDUCED HOLDING TEMPERATURES FOR POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT
14.9 POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT PROCEDURE FOR HIGH CHROMIUM ALLOY STEELS (MATERIAL GROUPS J ...
14.10 POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT OF AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC-AUSTENITIC CHROMIUM-NICKEL STEELS
14.11 EXEMPTIONS TO POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT OF ATTACHMENTS TO AND REPAIR WELDS IN POSTWEL...
14.12 POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT OF CLAD AND LINED EQUIPMENT
14.13 POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT OF DISSIMILAR MATERIAL JOINTS
14.14 HEAT TREATMENT OF ELECTROSLAG WELDS
14.15 HEAT TREATMENT OF NON-FERROUS METALS
14.16 HEAT TREATMENT OF TEST PLATES
14.17 RECORDING OF HEAT TREATMENT
14.18 HEAT TREATMENT VERIFICATION TESTS FOR EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTED IN MATERIAL GROUPS F AN...
14.18.1 General
14.18.2 Preparation of postweld heat treated specimens
14.18.3 Preparation of quenched specimens
14.18.4 Preparation of tempered specimens
14.18.5 Testing
SECTION 15 CLAD AND LINED CONSTRUCTION
15.1 GENERAL
15.2 CONSTRUCTION
15.3 WELDING
15.3.1 General
15.3.2 Weld metal composition
15.3.3 Alloy welds in base material
15.3.4 Attachment of applied metallic linings
15.4 POSTWELD TREATMENT
SECTION 16 BRAZED CONSTRUCTION
16.1 GENERAL
16.2 MATERIAL FOR BRAZING
16.2.1 General
16.2.2 Filler metal
16.2.3 Fluxes and atmospheres
16.3 ASSEMBLY OF COMPONENTS
16.4 PREPARATION OF SURFACES FOR BRAZING
16.5 BRAZING PROCESSES
16.6 BRAZING PROCEDURES
16.7 BRAZING PERSONNEL
16.7.1 Supervisors, brazers and brazing operators
16.7.2 Record
16.8 SURFACE OF FINISHED JOINT
16.9 POST-BRAZING OPERATIONS
16.10 REPAIR OF DEFECTIVE BRAZING
SECTION 17 FORGED CONSTRUCTION
17.1 GENERAL
17.2 METHODS OF FORMING FORGED ENDS
17.3 TOLERANCES ON PRESSURE VESSEL CYLINDERS AND ENDS
17.3.1 Tolerances on body
17.3.2 Tolerances on ends
17.4 HEAT TREATMENT
17.4.1 Normalized or annealed material
17.4.2 Quenched and tempered material
17.4.3 Non-heat treated material
17.5 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION
17.6 ATTACHMENT OF FORGINGS
17.6.1 General
17.6.2 Attachment of threaded connections to integrally-forged necks and thickened ends o...
17.7 WELDING OF FORGED PARTS
17.8 REPAIR OF IMPERFECTIONS
17.8.1 Defects in material
17.8.2 Welding repairs for low-carbon steels
17.8.3 Welding repairs for higher-carbon steels
17.8.4 Imperfections in welds
SECTION 18 CAST CONSTRUCTION
18.1 GENERAL
18.2 ATTACHMENT
18.3 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION
18.4 REPAIR OF IMPERFECTIONS
SECTION 19 TUBE HOLE DRILLING AND TUBE EXPANSION
19.1 GENERAL
19.2 TUBE HOLES - DIAMETER AND FINISH
19.2.1 Heat exchangers
19.2.2 Boilers
19.3 LOCATION OF TUBE HOLES IN WELDED JOINTS FOR BOTH BOILERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS
19.4 CONDITION OF TUBES
19.5 TUBEPLATE LIGAMENT
19.5.1 Heat exchangers
19.5.2 Boilers
19.6 EXPANSION OF TUBES
19.6.1 Heat exchangers
19.6.2 Welding of tubes to tubesheets
19.6.3 Boilers
SECTION 20 PRESSURE TESTING
20.1 GENERAL
20.2 TEST PRESSURE
SECTION 21 FINAL CLEANING, SURFACE TREATMENT AND DIMENSIONAL CHECKING
21.1 CLEANING AND SURFACE TREATMENT
21.2 DIMENSIONAL CHECKS
21.3 PROTECTION FOR TRANSPORT
21.3.1 Protection of weld preparations and piping
21.3.2 Protection of threaded components and machined surfaces
21.3.3 Protection of flanges
21.3.4 Identification for installation purposes
SECTION 22 NON-METALLIC PRESSURE EQUIPMENT
22.1 SCOPE
22.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
APPENDIX A - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
APPENDIX B - TYPICAL FERROUS MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
APPENDIX C - MANUFACTURER?S DATA REPORT
C1 FORM
C2 GUIDANCE IN COMPLETING REPORT
APPENDIX D - DESCALING OF AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC-AUSTENITIC Cr-Ni STEEL VESSELS
D1 GENERAL
D2 WELD FINISHING
APPENDIX E - SUGGESTED PRACTICE ON PEENING OF WELDS
E1 GENERAL
E2 TEMPERATURE
E3 TOOLS
E4 AS ALTERNATIVE TO THERMAL STRESS RELIEF
E5 FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED
APPENDIX F - RECOMMENDED DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES FOR PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING
  
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