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AS/NZS 1020-1995 the control of undesirable static electricity

Standard Number:  AS/NZS 1020-1995
Title:  the control of undesirable static electricity
Language:  English
Publication Date:  1995/3/5
Execute Date:  1995/3/5
Status:  Current
International Classification for Standards (ICS)ENVIRONMENT. HEALTH PROTECTION. SAFETY>>Protection against electric shock
Publisher:  Australia Standards(AS)
Price:  
Number of Pages:80P.;A4  

Description: This Standard sets out recommendations for controlling static electricity (hereinafter referred to as 'static') which may be generated incidentally by processes or activities and which may present hazards, damage or inconvenience. Considerations relating to the generation of static and the problems it presents in a given environment are given, together with a description of methods and equipment for measuring electric potential, charge, capacitance and resistance parameters associated with electrostatically charged objects. Specific control methods are given for some industries. The provisions of the standard should not be regarded as overriding statutory requirements, but may be construed as working recommendations to be used in conjunction with such requirements. Methods for minimizing the risk of static causing a fire or explosion arising from the use of flammable medical agents are not included, as they are given in AS 1169. Similarly, methods for affording protection from lightning are not included, as these are given in AS/NZS 1768, nor does this standard include the earthing systems of patient treatment areas in hospitals and the like. NOTE: Examples of the solving of some practical problems resulting from static are given in Appendix A.  
Catalog:Document Contents
AS/NZS 1020:1995 - THE CONTROL OF UNDESIRABLE STATIC ELECTRICITY
PREFACE
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
1.2 PURPOSE
1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
1.3.1 Standards
1.3.2 Other publications
1.4 DEFINITIONS
1.4.1 Antistatic (used as adjective)
1.4.2 Bonding
1.4.3 Earthing (Grounding)
1.4.4 Conductors
1.4.5 Non-conductors (insulators)
1.4.6 Ignitable materials and mixtures
1.4.7 Intrinsically safe circuit
1.4.8 Static electricity
1.4.9 Static discharge
1.4.10 Resistivity
SECTION 2 GENERATION, INDUCTION AND DANGERS BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
2.1 GENERATION OF STATIC
2.2 INDUCTION OF STATIC
2.3 COMMON SOURCES OF GENERATION
2.4 FIRE AND EXPLOSION DANGERS
2.5 REMOVAL OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION DANGERS
2.6 WORKING SURFACES AND FLOOR SURFACE COVERINGS
SECTION 3 STATIC DISCHARGES
3.1 NATURE OF STATIC DISCHARGES
3.2 ENERGY OF A STATIC DISCHARGE
SECTION 4 SOLID OBJECTS
4.1 SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE CONTROL METHOD
4.2 CONDUCTING OBJECTS
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Earthing
4.2.3 Bonding
4.2.4 Earthing and bonding conductors
4.2.5 Mobile apparatus
4.2.6 Rotating shafts
4.3 NON-CONDUCTING OBJECTS
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Increasing the conductivity of non-conducting objects
4.3.3 Increasing the humidity of the air
4.3.4 Ionization of the air
SECTION 5 PERSONS
5.1 GENERAL
5.2 WEARING APPAREL (OTHER THAN FOOTWEAR)
5.3 EARTHING OF PERSONS BY FOOTWEAR
5.4 OTHER MEANS OF EARTHING PERSONS
SECTION 6 LIQUIDS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.1.1 Generation of static
6.1.2 Fire and explosion dangers
6.1.3 Factors affecting static generation
6.1.4 Tendency of particular liquids to generate static
6.2 SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF AN APPROPRIATE CONTROL METHOD
6.3 DISSIPATING CHARGE FROM INSTALLATIONS
6.4 DISSIPATING CHARGE FROM LIQUIDS
6.4.1 Conducting liquids
6.4.2 Non-conducting liquids
6.5 CONDUCTIVITY IMPROVERS (ANTISTATIC ADDITIVES)
6.6 REDUCING THE LIKELIHOOD OF STATIC DISCHARGES ABOVE A LIQUID SURFACE
6.7 AVOIDANCE OF TURBULENCE
6.8 AVOIDANCE OF CONTAMINANTS
6.9 AVOIDANCE OF HIGH FLOW VELOCITIES
6.9.1 General
6.9.2 Hydrocarbons
6.9.3 Liquids other than hydrocarbons
6.10 USE OF RELAXATION SECTIONS
6.11 STATIC CHARGE REDUCERS
6.12 METALLIC PIPING
6.13 HOSES AND COUPLINGS
6.14 FILLING OF VESSELS
6.15 NON-CONDUCTING VESSELS
6.15.1 General
6.15.2 Lined vessels
6.15.3 Road tankers
6.16 TRANSFER OF SMALL QUANTITIES
6.17 BLENDING AND MIXING
6.18 SAMPLING FROM HIGH PRESSURE SOURCES
6.19 PNEUMATIC TRANSFER OF LIQUIDS
6.20 SPRAYING
6.21 SWITCH LOADING
SECTION 7 GASES
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 MINIMIZING STATIC GENERATION
7.3 PREVENTION OF STATIC ACCUMULATION
7.4 REMOVAL OF IGNITABLE MATERIALS AND MIXTURES
SECTION 8 DUSTS
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.1.1 General
8.1.2 Generation of static
8.1.3 Factors influencing static generation and accumulation
8.2 MINIMIZING STATIC GENERATION
8.3 DISSIPATING CHARGE FROM EQUIPMENT
8.3.1 Outlet nozzles
8.3.2 Objects in dust streams
8.3.3 Sampling
8.3.4 Bags and containers for collecting and transporting dust
SECTION 9 POWDERED OR GRANULAR SOLIDS
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 HANDLING
9.3 CONTROL OF STATIC
SECTION 10 DRIVE AND CONVEYOR BELTS
10.1 GENERATION OF STATIC
10.2 CONTROL OF STATIC
10.2.1 Replacement of drive
10.2.2 Belts
10.2.3 Pulleys, idler rollers and shafting
10.2.4 Safety guards
10.2.5 Materials discharged from conveyors
SECTION 11 EXPLOSIVES
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.2 ASSESSING THE HAZARD
11.3 MINIMIZING THE HAZARD
11.3.1 Materials of construction
11.3.2 The application of suitable surface coating
11.3.3 Radioactive ionizers
11.3.4 Relative humidity
11.3.5 Bonding and earthing
11.3.6 Plant arrangement
11.3.7 Clothing and footwear
11.3.8 Drive belts and conveyor belts
SECTION 12 PRINTING PROCESSES
12.1 INTRODUCTION
12.1.1 General
12.1.2 Generation of static
12.1.3 Factors influencing static generation
12.2 MINIMIZING STATIC GENERATION
12.3 PREVENTION OF STATIC ACCUMULATION
12.4 REMOVAL OF IGNITABLE MIXTURES
SECTION 13 COATING, SPREADING AND IMPREGNATING
13.1 INTRODUCTION
13.2 CONTROL OF STATIC AND REMOVAL OF IGNITABLE MIXTURES
SECTION 14 PROCESSING AND CONVERSION OF PLASTICS AND RUBBER MATERIALS
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 GENERATION OF STATIC
14.2.1 Flexible web processes
14.2.2 Extrusion processes
14.2.3 Moulding processes
14.3 CONTROL OF STATIC
14.4 SOLUTION CASTING OF FILM
14.4.1 General
14.4.2 Prevention of static accumulation during film casting
14.4.3 Dissolving film waste (Spoil)
14.4.4 Removal of flammable mixtures
14.5 END-USE APPLICATIONS
SECTION 15 DRYCLEANING
15.1 INTRODUCTION
15.2 CONTROL OF STATIC
15.2.1 Earthing and bonding
15.2.2 Solvent conductivity
15.2.3 Humidification
15.2.4 Persons
SECTION 16 SUNDRY PROCESSES INVOLVING FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
16.1 LOADING AND UNLOADING ROAD TANKERS
16.2 RAIL TANK WAGONS
16.3 FUELLING AND DEFUELLING AIRCRAFT
16.4 LOADING AND UNLOADING TANKERS AND BARGES
16.5 FUELLING MOTOR VEHICLES
16.6 TRANSFER OF ETHER AND CARBON DISULPHIDE
SECTION 17 SUNDRY PROCESSES INVOLVING PRESSURIZED GAS
17.1 DISCHARGE OF CARBON DIOXIDE
17.2 MIXTURES OF HYDROGEN OR ACETYLENE WITH AIR
17.3 TRANSFER OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
17.4 STEAM JETS
17.5 SPRAY PAINTING
SECTION 18 HANDLING OF ELECTROSTATIC SENSITIVE DEVICES
18.1 INTRODUCTION
18.2 BASIC PROTECTION PRINCIPLES
18.3 LABELLING
18.4 TYPES OF PACKAGES AVAILABLE
18.4.1 Polymer bags with thin metal coating
18.4.2 Coloured polymer bags
18.4.3 Polymer bags with high carbon content
SECTION 19 DETECTION OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL OR ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH
19.1 GENERAL
19.2 NEON LAMPS
19.3 ELECTROSCOPES
19.4 OTHER METHODS
SECTION 20 MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL OR ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH
20.1 MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL WITH CONTACTING INSTRUMENTS
20.1.1 Electrostatic voltmeters
20.1.2 Electronic voltmeters
20.2 MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTHWITHNON-CONTACTINGINSTR...
20.2.1 General
20.2.2 Electrometers
20.2.3 Induction electric field strength meters
20.2.4 Radioactive ionization field strength meters
20.3 CALIBRATION OF NON-CONTACTING ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS
20.4 MEASUREMENTS IN HAZARDOUS AREAS
20.4.1 General
20.4.2 Using an electrostatic or electronic voltmeter
20.4.3 Using non-contacting instruments
SECTION 21 DETERMINATION OF CAPACITANCE
21.1 CALCULATION OF CAPACITANCE
21.2 CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENT
21.2.1 General
21.2.2 Elimination of errors due to earthing the Cx terminal
21.2.3 Elimination of error due to lead capacitance
SECTION 22 MEASUREMENT OF CHARGES
22.1 MEASUREMENT OF STATIC CHARGE
SECTION 23 MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE OR CONDUCTANCE
23.1 GENERAL
23.2 RESISTANCE OF EARTHING CIRCUITS
23.3 RESISTANCE OF MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
23.4 PERSONNEL RESISTANCE TESTER
23.5 LIQUID CONDUCTIVITY
APPENDIX A - EXAMPLES OF SOLVING PRACTICAL PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM STATIC
A1 EXAMPLE WITH DRIVING BELT
A1.1 Problem
A1.2 Solution
A2 EXAMPLE WITH CONDUCTING SHOES
A2.1 Problem
A2.2 Solution
A3 EXAMPLE WITH STATIC COMB
A3.1 Problem
A3.2 Solution
A4 EXAMPLE WITH INSULATING SHEET CHARGED BY CONTACT AND SEPARATION WITH ANOTHER BODY
A4.1 Problem
A4.2 Solution
A5 EXAMPLES WITH LIQUIDS AND RELAXATION SECTIONS
A5.1 Problem
A5.2 Solution
A5.3 Problem
A5.4 Solution
A6 EXAMPLE WITH FILM CHARGED BY PASSING THROUGH A MACHINE
A6.1 Problem
A6.2 Investigation
A6.3 Calculation
A6.4 Evaluation of results
A6.5 Solution
APPENDIX B - FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
B1 VAPOURS
B1.1 Vapour pressure
B1.2 Flammable limits
B1.3 Mists and foams
B2 REDUCING THE HAZARDS OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
B2.1 General precautions
B2.2 Reducing quantity of flammable liquids
B2.3 Enclosure of flammable mixtures
B2.4 Preventing formation of flammable mixture.
APPENDIX C - METHOD FOR LAYING AND EARTHING CONDUCTING FLOORING
APPENDIX E - CONDUCTING COATINGS FOR DRIVE AND CONVEYOR BELTS
E1 INTRODUCTION
E2 GENERAL COATING
E3 COATING FOR RUBBER BELTS
  
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Tile in English:  the control of undesirable static electricity

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