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AS/NZS 1768-2007 lightning protection

Standard Number:  AS/NZS 1768-2007
Title:  lightning protection
Language:  English
Replacing Standard:  AS/NZS 1768(Int):2003

Publication Date:  2007/1/10
Status:  Current
Publisher:  Australia Standards(AS)
Price:  
Number of Pages:193P.;A4  

Description:Provides guidelines for the protection of persons and property from the hazards of lightning. Applies to conventional lightning protection systems consisting of air terminations, downconductors, earthing systems and surge protective devices. Also provide  
Catalog:Document Contents
AS/NZS 1768:2007 LIGHTNING PROTECTION
PREFACE
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
1.2 APPLICATION
1.3 INTRODUCTION
1.4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
1.5 DEFINITIONS
1.5.1 Air terminal
1.5.2 Air terminal network
1.5.3 Base conductors
1.5.4 Bond (bonding conductor)
1.5.5 Damage (8)
1.5.6 Direct lightning flash
1.5.7 Downconductor
1.5.8 Earth impedance (Z)
1.5.9 Earth potential rise (EPR)
1.5.10 Earthing boss (terminal lug)
1.5.11 Earthing conductor
1.5.12 Earthing electrodes (earth rods or ground rods)
1.5.13 Earthing resistance
1.5.14 Earth termination (earth termination network)
1.5.15 Electricity supply service earthing electrode
1.5.16 Explosive gas atmosphere
1.5.17 Finial
1.5.18 Frequency of lightning flashes direct to a service (Nc)
1.5.19 Frequency of lightning flashes direct to a structure (Nd)
1.5.20 Frequency of lightning flashes to ground near a service (NI)
1.5.21 Frequency of lightning flashes to ground near a structure (Nm)
1.5.22 Hazardous area
1.5.23 Incoming service
1.5.24 Indirect lightning flash
1.5.25 Internal installation
1.5.26 Joint
1.5.27 Lightning flash (lightning discharge)
1.5.28 Lightning flash density (Ng)
1.5.29 LPS (LPS Type I to IV)
1.5.30 Lightning protection zone (LPZ)
1.5.31 Lightning strike
1.5.32 Lightning strike attachment point
1.5.33 Lightning stroke
1.5.34 Loss
1.5.35 Multiple earthed neutral (MEN) system
1.5.36 Partial probability of damage (p)
1.5.37 Probability of damage (P)
1.5.38 Protection level (I to IV)
1.5.39 Protection measures
1.5.40 Resistibility
1.5.41 Risk (R)
1.5.42 Risk assessment
1.5.43 Risk component
1.5.44 Side-flash
1.5.45 Special damage factors (kn)
1.5.46 Striking distance (ds)
1.5.47 Structure or object
1.5.48 Surge protective device (SPD)
1.5.49 Test link
1.5.50 Thunderday
1.5.51 Tolerable risk (Ra)
1.5.52 Zone of protection
SECTION 2 ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF RISK DUE TO LIGHTNING -ANALYSIS OF NEED FOR PROTEC...
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 SCOPE OF SECTION
2.3 CONCEPT OF RISK
2.3.1 General considerations
2.3.2 Types of risk due to lightning
2.3.3 Tolerable values of risk
2.4 DAMAGE DUE TO LIGHTNING
2.4.1 Sources of damage
2.4.2 Types of damage
2.4.3 Consequences of damage (types of loss)
2.5 RISKS DUE TO LIGHTNING
2.5.1 Risk components
2.5.2 Calculation of risk components
2.6 PROCEDURE FOR RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
2.6.1 Procedure for risk assessment
2.6.2 Protection against direct lightning strikes if Rd > Ra
2.6.3 Protection against indirect lightning strikes if Rd Ra
2.6.4 Final check if Rd + Ri > Ra
2.7 RISK MANAGEMENT CALCULATION TOOL
2.7.1 General operation
2.7.2 Using the calculation tool in the risk management procedure
SECTION 3 PRECAUTIONS FOR PERSONAL SAFETY
3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
3.2 NEED FOR PERSONAL PROTECTION
3.3 PERSONAL CONDUCT
3.3.1 General
3.3.2 Outdoors
3.3.3 Indoor and outdoor swimming pools
3.3.4 Indoors
3.4 EFFECT ON PERSONS AND TREATMENT FOR INJURY BY LIGHTNING
SECTION 4 PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES
4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
4.2 PROTECTION LEVEL
4.3 LPS DESIGN RULES
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Rules for air terminals
4.3.3 Rules for downconductors
4.3.4 Rules for earth terminations
4.4 ZONES OF PROTECTION FOR LIGHTING INTERCEPTION
4.4.1 Basis of recommendations
4.4.2 Rolling sphere method (with a modification for large flat surfaces)
4.5 METHODS OF PROTECTION
4.5.1 Structural steel-framed buildings
4.5.2 Buildings without structural steel frames
4.5.3 Structures with flammable or explosive atmosphere
4.6 MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN PLANNING PROTECTION
4.6.1 Structures to be erected
4.6.2 Design considerations
4.7 MATERIALS
4.7.1 General
4.7.2 Corrosion
4.8 FORM AND SIZE OF CONDUCTORS
4.8.1 Factors influencing selection
4.8.2 Electrical and thermal considerations
4.8.3 Mechanical strength and corrosion considerations
4.9 JOINTS
4.9.1 Effectiveness of joints
4.9.2 Protective covering
4.10 FASTENERS
4.11 AIR TERMINALS
4.11.1 General requirements
4.11.2 Protection of roofs
4.11.3 Protection of the sides of tall buildings
4.12 DOWNCONDUCTORS
4.12.1 Structures-General
4.12.2 Route
4.12.3 Mechanical damage
4.13 TEST LINKS
4.14 EARTH TERMINATIONS
4.14.1 General principles
4.14.2 Earthing resistance
4.14.3 Common earthing electrode and potential equalization
4.15 EARTHING ELECTRODES
4.15.1 General considerations
4.15.2 Connections to earthing electrodes
4.15.3 Inspection and testing of earthing electrodes
4.16 METAL IN AND ON A STRUCTURE
4.16.1 Use of metal in or on a structure as a part of the lightning protection system
4.16.2 Prevention of side-flashing
SECTION 5 PROTECTION OF PERSONS AND EQUIPMENT WITHIN BUILDINGS
5.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
5.2 NEED FOR PROTECTION
5.3 MODES OF ENTRY OF LIGHTNING IMPULSES
5.4 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROTECTION
5.5 PROTECTION OF PERSONS WITHIN BUILDINGS
5.5.1 Objectives of protection
5.5.2 Installation of equipotential bonding
5.6 PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 Equipotential bonding for equipment protection
5.6.3 Surge protective devices (SPDs)
5.6.4 Magnetic shielding and line routing
5.6.5 Practical installation examples
SECTION 6 PROTECTION OF MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES AND PROPERTY
6.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
6.2 STRUCTURES WITH ANTENNAS
6.2.1 Indoor antenna system
6.2.2 Outdoor antennas on protected structures
6.2.3 Antennas on unprotected structures
6.2.4 Earthing of radio systems
6.3 STRUCTURES NEAR TREES
6.4 PROTECTION OF TREES
6.5 CHIMNEYS, METAL GUY°WIRES OR WIRE ROPES
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Metal ladders and metal linings
6.5.3 Chimneys
6.6 PROTECTION OF MINES
6.6.1 Factors influencing need for protection
6.6.2 Object of recommendations
6.6.3 Underground workings
6.6.4 Surface workings
6.6.5 Lightning detector
6.7 PROTECTION OF BOATS
6.7.1 General
6.7.2 Elements of the protection system
6.7.3 Installation recommendations
6.7.4 Precautions for persons and maintenance suggestions
6.7.5 Bonding the lightning protection system to the vessel?s electrical wiring system ea...
6.8 FENCES
6.9 MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES
6.9.1 Shelters, shade structures and rotundas in the public domain
6.9.2 Large tents and marquees
6.9.3 Small tents
6.9.4 Metal scaffolding and similar structures, including overbridges
6.9.5 Tall metal masts, towers, cranes and revolving and travelling structures
6.10 PROTECTION OF HOUSES AND SMALL BUILDINGS
6.10.1 General considerations
6.10.2 Air terminal network for the building
6.10.3 Provision of downconductors for the building
6.10.4 Provision of earthing electrodes
6.11 PROTECTION OF METALLIC PIPELINES
SECTION 7 PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES WITH EXPLOSIVE OR HIGHLY°FLAMMABLE CONTENTS
7.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
7.2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
7.2.1 Risk assessment
7.2.2 Protection required
7.2.3 Electrostatic shielding
7.3 AREAS OF APPLICATION
7.4 EQUIPMENT APPLICATION
7.4.1 Earth bonding points
7.4.2 Bonding conductors
7.4.3 Sizes of copper strips
7.4.4 Downconductors (see Clause 4.12)
7.4.5 Air terminals (see Clause 4.11)
7.5 SPECIFIC OCCUPANCIES
7.5.1 Protection of steel tanks
7.5.2 Installations handling crude oil and products-Jetties for marine tankers and barges
7.5.3 Aircraft fuelling and de°fuelling
7.5.4 Structures with explosive or highly-flammable contents
SECTION 8 INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE PRACTICE
8.1 WORK ON SITE
8.2 INSPECTION
8.3 TESTING
8.4 RECORDS
8.5 MAINTENANCE
APPENDIX A - EXAMPLES OF LIGHTNING RISK CALCULATIONS
A1 INTRODUCTION
A2 SAMPLE SPREADSHEET CALCULATIONS
A2.1 Example 1-40 metre high office block
A2.2 Example 2-Darwin hotel
A2.3 Example 3-Historic church
A2.4 Example 4-Remote pump station
A2.5 Example 5-Two storey house
A3 SAMPLE BY-HAND CALCULATION-40 METRE HIGH OFFICE BLOCK
APPENDIX B - THE NATURE OF LIGHTNING AND THE PRINCIPLES OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION
B1 SCOPE OF APPENDIX
B2 THE NATURE OF LIGHTNING
B2.1 Nature of lightning
B2.2 The lightning attachment process
B2.3 Thunderstorm and lightning occurrence
B3 EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING
B4 POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES CAUSED BY LIGHTNING
B4.1 General
B4.2 Earth currents
B4.3 Side°flash
B4.4 Potential (voltage) differences
B5 PRINCIPLES OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION
B5.1 Purpose of protection
B5.2 Interception of lightning
B5.3 Determination of lightning strike attachment points to buildings
B5.4 Protection of the sides of tall buildings
B5.5 Safe discharge to earth
B5.6 Potential equalization
B6 ELEMENTS OF A PROTECTION SYSTEM
APPENDIX C - NOTES ON EARTHING ELECTRODES AND MEASUREMENT OF EARTH IMPEDANCE
C1 GENERAL
C1.1 Function of an earthing electrode
C1.2 Factors influencing earth impedance
C1.3 Measures for reducing earth impedance
C2 RESISTIVITY OF SOIL
C2.1 General
C2.2 Artificial reduction of soil resistivity
C2.3 Determining soil resistivity by test
C3 CALCULATION OF EARTH RESISTANCE OF AN EARTHING ELECTRODE
C4 USE OF EARTHING ELECTRODES IN PARALLEL
C5 DRIVEN OR DRILLED EARTHING ELECTRODES
C5.1 General
C5.2 Safety
C5.3 Installation
C5.4 Materials for earthing electrodes
C5.5 Earthing electrode diameter
C5.6 Depth of installation
C5.7 Sleeving of exposed part of vertical earthing electrode
C5.8 Comparison with other earthing electrode types
C6 BURIED STRIP EARTHING ELECTRODES
C7 BURIED PLATE EARTHING ELECTRODES
C8 CONCRETE FOOTING EARTHING ELECTRODES
C9 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF EARTHING ELECTRODES
C10 MEASUREMENT OF SOIL RESISTIVITY, EARTHING ELECTRODE RESISTANCE AND EARTH TERMINATION ...
C10.1 Determination of soil resistivity by test
C10.2 Earth resistance
C10.3 Isolation of surge impedance of an earth termination network from other fortuitous ...
APPENDIX D - THE CALCULATION OF LIGHTNING DISCHARGE VOLTAGES AND REQUISITE SEPARATION DIS...
D1 GENERAL
D2 TRANSIENT VOLTAGE CALCULATIONS BY TRAVELLING WAVE ANALYSIS
D2.1 Simplified travelling wave characteristics
D2.2 Surge voltage calculation by lattice diagram
D3 SURGE VOLTAGE CALCULATIONS BY LUMPED CIRCUIT APPROXIMATIONS
APPENDIX E - EARTHING AND BONDING
E1 GENERAL
E2 DEFINITIONS
E2.1 Common bonding network (CBN)
E2.2 Common utilities enclosure
E2.3 Earth potential rise (EPR)
E2.4 EPR hazard zone
E2.5 Main earthing bar (MEB)
E2.6 Main earthing conductor
E2.7 Main switchboard (MSB)
E2.8 Main distribution frame (MDF)
E3 HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH HV POWER EPR
E3.1 General
E3.2 HV sites of particular concern
E4 METHODS OF EQUIPOTENTIAL BONDING
E4.1 General
E4.2 Using a bonding bar
E4.3 Use of a common bonding network
E4.4 Use of a ring earth
APPENDIX F - WAVESHAPES FOR ASSESSING THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF EQUIPMENT TO TRANSIENT OVERVO...
APPENDIX G - REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
G1 REFERENCED STANDARDS AND REGULATORY DOCUMENTS
G2 REFERENCED TECHNICAL PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS
  
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Tile in English:  lightning protection

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