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AS 1418.1-1994 cranes including hoists and winches - general requirements

Standard Number:  AS 1418.1-1994
Title:  cranes including hoists and winches - general requirements
Language:  English
Publication Date:  1994/3/7
Execute Date:  1994/6/20
Status:  Withdrawn
International Classification for Standards (ICS)MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT>>Lifting equipment>>Cranes
Publisher:  Australia Standards(AS)
Price:  
Number of Pages:156P.;A4  

Preface:   
Description:The Standard specifies the general requirements for cranes. The Standard includes the design of cranes by the traditional working stress method and also allows design by the limit states design method. The partial load factors necessary for crane design by the limit states method have not been provided. Major technical changes include revisions towards harmonization with ISO Standards, development of crane loads, crane structure, stability, electrical and controls including automatic controls, radio controls and infra-red control. The Appendices have also been revised.  
Catalog:Document Contents
AS 1418.1-1994 CRANES (INCLUDING HOISTS AND WINCHES) - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
PREFACE
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
1.2 NEW DESIGNS AND INNOVATIONS
1.3 INTERPRETATIONS
1.4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
1.5 DEFINITIONS
1.6 NOTATION
SECTION 2 CLASSIFICATION OF CRANES
2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
2.2 GENERAL
2.3 GROUP CLASSIFICATION
2.3.1 Bases of classification
2.3.2 Class of utilization
2.3.3 Load spectrum
2.3.4 Group classification
SECTION 3 MATERIALS FOR CRANES
3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
3.2 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
3.3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
SECTION 4 CRANE LOADS
4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
4.2 REFERENCE TO OTHER PARTS OF THIS STANDARD
4.3 DETERMINATION OF CRANE LOADS
4.4 CATEGORIZATION OF CRANE LOADS
4.5 PRINCIPAL LOADS
4.5.1 General
4.5.2 Dead loads
4.5.3 Hoisted load
4.5.4 Inertia loads
4.5.5 Loads induced by displacements
4.6 ADDITIONAL LOADS
4.6.1 General
4.6.2 In-service wind forces
4.6.3 Snow and ice loads
4.6.4 Forces due to temperature variation
4.6.5 Lateral forces due to oblique travel
4.6.6 Bulk material impact loads
4.7 SPECIAL LOADS
4.7.1 General
4.7.2 Loads due to off-vertical hoisting
4.7.3 Out-of-service wind forces
4.7.4 Test loads
4.7.5 Buffer forces
4.7.6 Tilting forces
4.7.7 Loads on walkways and in chutes
4.7.8 Loads caused by emergency conditions
4.7.9 Seismic loads
4.7.10 Loads during erection
4.8 CATEGORIZATION OF FREQUENCY OF CRANE LOAD COMBINATIONS
4.9 PRINCIPLES FOR DETERMINATION OF CRANE LOAD COMBINATIONS
4.9.1 Basic considerations
4.9.2 Application of load combinations
SECTION 5 DESIGN OF CRANE STRUCTURE
5.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
5.2 BASIS OF DESIGN
5.2.1 Service life of crane
5.2.2 Design of structure
5.2.3 Classification of crane structures
5.3 DESIGN OBJECTIVE
5.4 METHOD OF DESIGN
5.4.1 General
5.4.2 Working stress design method
5.4.3 Limit states method
5.5 FATIGUE STRENGTH
5.5.1 General
5.5.2 Working stress design
5.5.3 Limit states design
5.6 DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY DEFLECTION AND VIBRATION
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 Deformation limits
5.6.3 Limits on frequency and amplitude of vibration
5.7 DESIGN OF MONORAIL BEAMS
5.7.1 Flange thickness
5.7.2 Web thickness of single-web beam
SECTION 6 STABILITY
6.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
6.2 OVERTURNING
6.3 STABILITY DURING ERECTION, MAINTENANCE AND WEIGHING
6.4 SAFETY AGAINST DRIFTING
SECTION 7 CRANE MECHANISMS
7.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
7.2 MECHANISMS
7.3 BASIS OF DESIGN
7.3.1 Design of mechanism
7.3.2 Design for strength
7.3.3 Design for life
7.3.4 Classification of crane mechanisms
7.4 MECHANISM LOADINGS
7.4.1 Determination of loads
7.4.2 Categorization of mechanism loads
7.4.3 Categorization of mechanism loading
7.5 PRINCIPAL LOADS
7.6 ADDITIONAL LOADS
7.7 SPECIAL LOADS
7.8 CATEGORIZATION OF FREQUENCY OF MECHANISM LOAD COMBINATIONS
7.9 PRINCIPALS OF DETERMINATION OF MECHANISM LOAD COMBINATIONS
7.9.1 General
7.9.2 Application of load combinations
7.10 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS
7.10.1 General
7.10.2 Bearings
7.10.3 Gearing
7.11 DRIVING MEDIA
7.12 BRAKING
7.12.1 Braking media
7.12.2 Size and characteristics
7.12.3 Environmental protection
7.12.4 Accessibility
7.12.5 Materials
7.12.6 Design
7.12.7 Operation
7.12.8 Hoisting motion
7.12.9 Travel and traverse motions
7.12.10 Luffing motion
7.12.11 Slewing motion
7.13 MOTION LIMITS, INDICATORS AND WARNING DEVICES
7.13.1 Provision of limits
7.13.2 Range of limitation of motion
7.13.3 Operation of motion limit
7.13.4 Indicators and warning devices
7.14 DRUMS
7.14.1 Materials
7.14.2 Design
7.14.3 Diameter of drum
7.14.4 Actual thickness of drum shell
7.14.5 Theoretical thickness of drum shell (abbreviated method)
7.15 SHEAVES
7.15.1 Materials
7.15.2 Design
7.15.3 Diameter of sheave
7.15.4 Sheave guard
7.16 DRUM AND SHEAVE DIAMETERS
7.17 ROPES AND REEVED SYSTEMS
7.17.1 Ropes
7.17.2 Components
7.18 GUYS, OTHER FIXED-ROPE SYSTEMS, AND STATIONARY ROPES
7.19 REEVED SYSTEMS
7.19.1 Wire rope
7.19.2 Wire rope selection procedure
7.19.3 Fleet angle from drum or sheave
7.19.4 Rope anchorages
7.19.5 Rope equalizers
7.19.6 Overhauling weight
7.19.7 Fibre rope
7.20 WHEELS AND RAILS
7.20.1 Selection of wheels and rails
7.20.2 Wheel loading
7.20.3 Wheels
7.20.4 Tyres
7.20.5 Side guide rollers
7.20.6 Rails
7.20.7 Rail fastening
7.20.8 Rail joints
7.20.9 Rail alignment
7.20.10 Runway flanges -Lateral support
SECTION 8 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND CONTROLS
8.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
8.2 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
8.3 INFORMATION RELEVANT TO DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
8.4 MOTORS
8.4.1 Enclosure and duty type
8.4.2 Rated output and performance characteristics
8.4.3 Resistors for motor power circuits
8.5 MOTOR CONTROL
8.5.1 Control systems
8.5.2 Electrical braking
8.5.3 Motor control circuit
8.6 CONTACTORS
8.7 CONTROLLERS
8.7.1 Means of control
8.7.2 Pendant control station
8.7.3 Pendant cord
8.7.4 Whole-current controller
8.7.5 Master controller or combination controller
8.7.6 Radio control
8.7.7 Electronic control
8.7.8 Automatic control
8.7.9 Infra-red control
8.8 LIMIT SWITCHES
8.8.1 Purpose
8.8.2 Mandatory and optional limit switches
8.8.3 Working-limit switch
8.8.4 Final-limit switch
8.8.5 Operation of limit switches and associated electrical relays
8.8.6 Design and construction
8.8.7 Application
8.9 CONTROL-CIRCUIT TRANSFORMERS
8.10 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
8.10.1 Purpose
8.10.2 Arrangement of isolation
8.10.3 Main isolator
8.10.4 Crane isolator
8.10.5 Access isolators
8.10.6 Service isolator
8.10.7 Accessory, ancillary and auxiliary isolators
8.10.8 Emergency isolation
8.11 ELECTRICAL PROTECTION
8.11.1 Purpose
8.11.2 Overcurrent protection
8.11.3 Motor overtemperature protection (overload protection)
8.11.4 Earthing
8.12 HIGH-VOLTAGE SUPPLY TO CRANES
8.13 LIGHTNING PROTECTION
8.14 CRANES WITH MAGNET ATTACHMENTS
8.14.1 General
8.14.2 Lifting capacity
8.14.3 Magnet controllers
8.14.4 Application of magnets
8.14.5 Emergency batteries
8.14.6 Magnet circuits
8.14.7 Rectifiers
8.14.8 Magnet leads
8.14.9 Magnet couplings
8.14.10 Magnet attachments
8.14.11 Magnet testing
8.15 WIRING AND CONDUCTORS
8.15.1 Materials and installation
8.15.2 Multi-outlet electrical supply
8.15.3 Crane collector systems
8.15.4 Collector rings
8.15.5 Electrical supply cables
8.15.6 Flexible cable
8.16 ACCESSIBILITY
8.16.1 General
8.16.2 Servicing platforms
8.17 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT MARKING AND INSTALLATION DIAGRAMS
8.17.1 Marking
8.17.2 Diagrams
SECTION 9 HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT AND CONTROLS
9.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
9.2 MATERIALS
9.3 BASIS OF DESIGN
9.3.1 General
9.3.2 Braking
9.3.3 Emergency stop
9.3.4 Tubes, hoses, fittings and fluid passages
9.3.5 Safety features
9.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
9.5 COMPONENTS
9.5.1 Accumulators
9.5.2 Cylinders
9.5.3 Filters and strainers
9.5.4 Hydraulic controls
9.5.5 Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors
9.5.6 Hydraulic tubing, hoses, fittings and fluid passages
9.5.7 Reservoirs
9.6 INSTALLATION
9.7 TESTING
9.8 MARKING
9.9 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
9.9.1 General
9.9.2 Replacement parts
SECTION 10 PNEUMATIC EQUIPMENT AND CONTROLS
10.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
10.2 MATERIALS
10.3 BASIS OF DESIGN
10.3.1 General
10.3.2 Braking
10.3.3 Emergency stop
10.3.4 Tubes, hoses, fittings and air passages
10.3.5 Safety features
10.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
10.5 COMPONENTS
10.5.1 Cylinders
10.5.2 Filters
10.5.3 Pneumatic controls
10.5.4 Pneumatic motors
10.5.5 Pneumatic tubing, hoses, fittings and air passages
10.5.6 Receivers
10.6 INSTALLATION
10.7 TESTING
10.8 MARKING
10.9 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
10.9.1 General
10.9.2 Replacement parts
SECTION 11 OPERATIONAL DESIGN
11.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
11.2 CONTROL CABIN
11.2.1 Location of control cabin
11.2.2 Space for driver/operator
11.2.3 Seating of driver/operator
11.2.4 Controls and indicators
11.2.5 Visibility from the cabin
11.2.6 Ventilation
11.2.7 Lighting
11.2.8 Thermal environment
11.2.9 Noise exposure criteria
11.2.10 Communication
11.2.11 Fire extinguisher
11.2.12 Emergency entry to control cabin
11.3 PENDANT CONTROL STATIONS AND PENDANT CORDS
11.3.1 Pathway for crane driver
11.3.2 Operating level of controls
11.4 DRIVER CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
11.4.1 Crane motions
11.4.2 Operation of controls
11.4.3 Interlocking of controls
11.4.4 Controls and indicators for ancillaries
11.5 WARNING DEVICES
SECTION 12 MANUFACTURE AND CONSTRUCTION
12.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
12.2 MATERIALS
12.3 FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY
12.4 REWORK
12.5 FINISH
12.6 DRAINING
12.7 ACCESS AND CLEARANCES
12.7.1 General
12.7.2 Access to crane driving position
12.7.3 Access and servicing facilities
12.7.4 Clearances
12.8 REPAIRS
SECTION 13 ACCESS FOR SERVICING
13.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
13.2 ACCESS FOR SERVICING
13.2.1 Servicing
13.2.2 Access for servicing
SECTION 14 INSPECTION, TESTING AND MARKING
14.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
14.2 INSPECTION
14.3 TESTING
14.4 MARKING
14.4.1 General
14.4.2 Marking on lifting means
SECTION 15 OPERATING ENVIRONMENT
15.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
15.2 INDOOR INSTALLATION
15.2.1 Normal service conditions
15.2.2 Special service conditions
15.3 OUTDOOR INSTALLATION
15.3.1 Normal service conditions
15.3.2 Special service conditions
15.4 MAINTENANCE
APPENDIX A - ORGANIZATION OF AUSTRALIAN STANDARD FOR CRANES
APPENDIX B - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
APPENDIX C - FATIGUE DESIGN OF MECHANISMS
C1 INTRODUCTION
C2 DEFINITIONS
C2.1 Alternating stress
C2.2 Endurance limit (or fatigue limit)
C2.3 Endurance ratio
C2.4 Fatigue life
C2.5 Fatigue strength
C2.6 Finite life
C2.7 Fluctuating stress
C2.8 Frequency of stress cycle
C2.9 Infinite life
C2.10 Linear damage law
C2.11 Maximum and minimum stress
C2.12 Mean stress (or steady stress component)
C2.13 S-N diagram
C2.14 Stress amplitude
C2.15 Stress cycle
C2.16 Stress range
C2.17 Stress ratio
C3 DESIGN PROCEDURE
C3.1 General
C3.2 Selection of materials
C3.3 Detail design
C3.4 Fatigue strength design
C3.5 Fatigue life design
C3.6 Factor of safety
C4 WELDED FABRICATED COMPONENTS
C5 REFERENCES
APPENDIX D - TYPICAL CRANE APPLICATION CLASSIFICATION
APPENDIX E - OBLIQUE TRAVEL FORCES-DETAILED ANALYSIS
E1 GENERAL
E2 GENERAL METHOD OF CALCULATION APPLICABLE TO ALL BRIDGE AND GANTRY CRANES
APPENDIX F - TYPICAL CRANE DRIVE DIAGRAMS
APPENDIX G - TYPICAL METHODS OF BRAKING OPERATION
G1 BRAKE APPLICATION
G2 BRAKE RELEASE
APPENDIX H - GUIDANCE ON GROOVE PROFILES FOR ROPE DRUMS
APPENDIX I - THEORETICAL THICKNESS OF CRANE DRUM
I1 APPLICATION
I2 NOTATION
I3 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES
I4 LIMITATIONS ON DRUM-SHELL THICKNESS
I5 STRESSES IN SINGLE-LAYER DRUM
I6 STRESSES IN MULTILAYER DRUM*
I7 DRUM DESIGN FACTORS
APPENDIX J - GUIDANCE ON GROOVE PROFILES FOR WIRE ROPE SHEAVES
APPENDIX K - REEVED SYSTEMS-ALLOWANCE FOR FRICTIONAL EFFECTS
APPENDIX L - NOISE LEVELS
APPENDIX M - MAINTENANCE WORK PROCEDURES
M1 INTRODUCTION
M2 RESTRICTION OF ACCESS
M3 AUTHORIZATION FOR ACCESS
M4 WARNING TO OTHER PERSONNEL
M5 WORK NEAR CRANES AND CRANE RUNWAYS
M6 WORK ON CRANES
M7 LOCKOUT OF MAIN ISOLATOR OR CRANE ISOLATOR
M8 OVERHEAD MAINTENANCE WORK
M9 MAINTENANCE WORK IN ELEVATED POSITIONS
M10 HEAD PROTECTION
APPENDIX N - STANDARDS FOR COMPONENTS USED IN LIFTING SYSTEMS
  
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