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AS 3700-1998 masonry structures

Standard Number:  AS 3700-1998
Title:  masonry structures
Language:  English
Replaced by Standard:  AS 3700-2001 masonry structures

Revocatory Date:  2003/9/11
Status:  Withdrawn
International Classification for Standards (ICS)CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND BUILDING>>Structures of buildings>>Masonry
Publisher:  Australia Standards(AS)
Price:  
Number of Pages:122  

Preface:   
Description:Specifies the minimum requirements for the design and construction of unreinforced, reinforced and prestressed masonry, and the design of wall ties. It includes an increased use of performance-type specification of requirements and the virtual work method for the design of un reinforced masonry subject to wind or earthquake loads. It also includes the design and construction of AAC, and provides additional requirements for the design of structures subject to earthquake actions.  
Catalog:Document Contents
AS 3700-1998 MASONRY STRUCTURES
PREFACE
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE AND APPLICATION
1.1.1 Scope
1.1.2 Application
1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
1.3 USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS OR METHODS
1.3.1 General
1.3.2 Existing structures
1.4 INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED ON DOCUMENTS
1.4.1 General
1.4.2 Provision for demolition
1.5 DEFINITIONS
1.5.1 Administrative definitions
1.5.2 Technical definitions
1.6 NOTATION
SECTION 2 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN
2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
2.2 AIM
2.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
2.3.1 Durability
2.3.2 Fire resistance
2.3.3 Serviceability
2.3.4 Strength
2.3.5 Stability
2.3.6 Other requirements
2.4 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
2.4.1 Design for durability
2.4.2 Design for fire resistance
2.4.3 Design for serviceability
2.4.4 Design for strength
2.4.5 Design for stability
2.4.6 Design for other requirements
2.5 SERVICEABILITY, STRENGTH AND STABILITY
2.5.1 General
2.5.2 Design for serviceability
2.5.3 Design for strength
2.5.4 Design for stability
2.6 LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS
2.6.1 Loads, and other forces and actions
2.6.2 Design load combinations
2.6.3 Design loads for lateral supporting members
2.6.4 Design loads for connections to lateral supports
2.7 OTHER DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 Design for water penetration
2.7.3 Design for accidental damage
2.7.4 Masonry under construction
2.8 THERMAL INSULATION
2.9 SOUND INSULATION
SECTION 3 DESIGN PROPERTIES
3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
3.2 MASONRY UNITS
3.3 MASONRY
3.3.1 General
3.3.2 Compressive strength
3.3.3 Flexural tensile strength
3.3.4 Shear strength
3.3.5 Shear factor
3.3.6 Elastic properties of masonry
3.4 TIES AND ACCESSORIES
3.5 GROUT
3.6 REINFORCEMENT
3.6.1 Strength
3.6.2 Modulus of elasticity
3.6.3 Stress-strain curves
3.7 TENDONS
3.7.1 Strength
3.7.2 Modulus of elasticity
3.7.3 Stress-strain curves
3.7.4 Other properties
SECTION 4 GENERAL DESIGN ASPECTS
4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
4.2 MEMBERS OF MIXED CONSTRUCTION
4.3 CHASES, HOLES AND RECESSES
4.4 CAPACITY REDUCTION FACTORS
4.5 CROSS-SECTION PROPERTIES
4.5.1 Bedded thickness
4.5.2 Effective width of compression faces and flanges
4.5.3 Structural end of a masonry member
4.5.4 Bedded area
4.5.5 Combined cross-sectional area
4.5.6 Design cross-sectional area
4.5.7 Grout area
4.5.8 Section modulus and second moment of area
4.5.9 Chases, holes and recesses
4.6 DESIGN FOR ROBUSTNESS
4.6.1 General
4.6.2 Maximum slenderness of masonry members
4.7 PREVENTION OF MOISTURE PENETRATION
4.7.1 Cavities
4.7.2 Weep holes
4.7.3 Damp-proof courses and flashings
4.7.4 Single leaf and solid walls
4.8 CONTROL JOINTS
4.8.1 General
4.8.2 Detailing
4.9 MORTAR JOINTS
4.9.1 Thickness
4.9.2 Finishing
4.10 WALL TIES
4.11 BONDING, TYING AND SUPPORTING
4.11.1 General
4.11.2 Bonding with masonry header units
4.11.3 Tying with connectors
4.11.4 Fixing to supporting structures
4.12 ARCHES AND LINTELS
4.13 INTERACTION BETWEEN MASONRY MEMBERS AND SLABS, BEAMS OR COLUMNS
4.14 CORBELLING
4.14.1 Corbels normal to the plane of the wall
4.14.2 Corbels in the plane of the wall
4.15 ATTACHMENT TO FACE OF WALLS
SECTION 5 DESIGN FOR DURABILITY
5.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
5.2 EXPOSURE ENVIRONMENTS
5.2.1 Mild environment
5.2.2 Exterior environment
5.2.3 Interior environment
5.2.4 Marine environment
5.2.5 Severe marine environment
5.3 MASONRY UNITS
5.4 MORTAR
5.5 BUILT-IN COMPONENTS
5.6 GROUT
5.7 REINFORCEMENT AND TENDONS
5.7.1 General
5.7.2 Reinforcement and tendons in grouted cavities and cores
5.7.3 Reinforcement and tendons embedded in mortar joints
5.7.4 Unbonded tendons in cavities and cores
SECTION 6 DESIGN FOR FIRE RESISTANCE
6.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
6.2 FIRE-RESISTANCE LEVELS
6.3 STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Design of walls using tabulated values
6.3.3 Design of walls based on test results
6.3.4 Isolated piers
6.3.5 Minimum reinforcement
6.3.6 Protection to reinforcement
6.4 INTEGRITY
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Design from tabulated values
6.4.3 Design based on test results
6.5 INSULATION
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Material thickness of member
6.5.3 Design of walls using tabulated values
6.5.4 Design based on test results
6.6 RECESSES FOR SERVICES
6.7 CHASES
6.7.1 General
6.7.2 The effect of chases on structural adequacy
6.7.3 The effect of chases on integrity and insulation
6.8 PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEELWORK
SECTION 7 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF UNREINFORCED MASONRY
7.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
7.2 GENERAL BASIS OF DESIGN
7.3 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN COMPRESSION
7.3.1 General
7.3.2 Basic compressive capacity
7.3.3 Design by simple rules
7.3.4 Design by refined calculation
7.3.5 Concentrated loads
7.4 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN BENDING
7.4.1 General
7.4.2 Design for vertical bending
7.4.3 Design for horizontal bending
7.4.4 Design for two-way bending
7.5 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN SHEAR
7.5.1 Shear capacity
7.5.2 Shear strength on a vertical plane
7.5.3 Shear connectors
7.6 DESIGN OF SHEAR WALLS
7.6.1 General
7.6.2 Two or more shear walls acting together
7.6.3 Design for compression and in-plane lateral forces
7.7 DESIGN OF MASONRY VENEER WALLS
7.7.1 General
7.7.2 Wall ties with flexible structural backing
7.7.3 Wall ties with stiff structural backing
7.8 DESIGN OF CAVITY WALLS
7.8.1 General
7.8.2 Compressive load capacity with both leaves loaded
7.8.3 Lateral bending capacity
7.8.4 Wall ties
7.9 DESIGN OF DIAPHRAGM WALLS
7.9.1 General
7.9.2 Design for lateral loads
7.9.3 Diaphragms
SECTION 8 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF REINFORCED MASONRY
8.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
8.2 GENERAL BASIS OF DESIGN
8.3 GENERAL REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENT
8.3.1 General
8.3.2 Main reinforcement
8.3.3 Secondary reinforcement
8.3.4 Reinforcement detailing, cover and protection
8.3.5 Close-spaced reinforcement for increased ductility in earthquakes
8.3.6 Wide-spaced reinforcement
8.4 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN COMPRESSION
8.5 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN BENDING
8.6 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN SHEAR
8.6.1 General
8.6.2 In-plane shear in walls
8.6.3 Out-of-plane shear in walls
8.6.4 Shear in beams
8.7 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN TENSION
8.8 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN COMBINED BENDING AND COMPRESSION
8.9 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN COMBINED BENDING AND TENSION
SECTION 9 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED MASONRY
9.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
9.2 GENERAL BASIS OF DESIGN
9.2.1 General
9.2.2 Additional requirements for strength
9.2.3 Additional requirements for serviceability limit state
9.3 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR PRESTRESSING TENDONS
9.3.1 General
9.3.2 Immediate loss of prestress
9.3.3 Time-dependent losses of prestress
9.3.4 Close-spaced reinforcement for increased ductility in earthquakes
9.4 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN COMPRESSION
9.5 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN BENDING
9.5.1 General
9.5.2 Ultimate tensile stress in tendon
9.5.3 Upper limit on tendon area
9.5.4 Minimum bending strength
9.6 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN SHEAR
9.7 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN TENSION
9.8 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN COMBINED BENDING AND COMPRESSION
9.9 DESIGN FOR MEMBERS IN COMBINED BENDING AND TENSION
9.10 DESIGN OF ANCHORAGE ZONES
SECTION 10 MATERIALS
10.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
10.2 MASONRY
10.3 MASONRY UNITS
10.4 MORTAR
10.4.1 General
10.4.2 Materials
10.4.3 Mortar durability
10.4.4 Structural properties of mortar
10.4.5 Mortar for reinforced or prestressed masonry
10.5 WALL TIES, CONNECTORS, ACCESSORIES AND LINTELS
10.5.1 Wall ties
10.5.2 Connectors and accessories
10.5.3 Lintels
10.6 DAMP-PROOF COURSES, FLASHINGS AND WEATHERINGS
10.6.1 Membrane damp- proof courses and flashings
10.6.2 Mortar weatherings
10.7 GROUT
10.7.1 General
10.7.2 Materials
10.7.3 Strength
10.8 REINFORCEMENT AND TENDONS
10.8.1 Reinforcement
10.8.2 Tendons
10.8.3 Reinforcement embedded in mortar joints
SECTION 11 CONSTRUCTION
11.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
11.2 GENERAL
11.3 MATERIALS
11.3.1 General
11.3.2 Masonry units
11.3.3 Mortar
11.4 WORKMANSHIP
11.4.1 Base course
11.4.2 Mortar joints
11.4.3 Movement control joints
11.4.4 Bonding
11.4.5 Cutting of units
11.4.6 Holes and chases
11.4.7 Building in
11.4.8 Bolts and anchors
11.4.9 Rate of construction
11.4.10 Sections of masonry constructed at different rates or times
11.4.11 Construction during adverse weather conditions
11.4.12 Disturbance of new masonry
11.4.13 Cavities in walls
11.4.14 Weep holes
11.4.15 Joint finishing
11.4.16 Damp-proof courses and flashing
11.5 TOLERANCES IN MASONRY
11.5.1 General
11.5.2 Measurement of bow
11.5.3 Reinforcement and tendons
11.6 SITE CONTROL
11.7 ADDITIONAL SITE CONTROL OF SPECIAL MASONRY
11.7.1 General
11.7.2 Rate of sampling
11.7.3 Target strength
11.7.4 Assessment for compliance with strength requirements
11.8 GROUTED MASONRY
11.8.1 Cleaning out
11.8.2 Grouting
11.8.3 Sampling and testing of grout
11.9 MASONRY UNDER CONSTRUCTION
11.9.1 Temporary bracing
11.9.2 Premature loading
11.9.3 Physical damage
11.9.4 Weather conditions
11.10 CLEANING
11.11 TESTING OF IN-SITU MASONRY
APPENDIX A - ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO EARTHQUAKE ACTIONS
A1 SCOPE
A2 DEFINITIONS
A2.1 *Bearing wall system
A2.2 *Building frame system
A2.3 Deflection amplification factor
A2.4 *Diaphragm
A2.5 *Dual system
A2.6 *Ductility
A2.7 *Earthquake design category
A2.8 Earthquake coefficient
A2.9 Inter- storey drift
A2.10 Irregular structure
A2.11 Regular structure
A2.12 Structural response factor
A3 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
A3.1 General
A3.2 Structure configuration
A3.3 Structural elements
A3.4 Non-structural components
A3.5 Connections and wall anchorage
A4 DOMESTIC STRUCTURES
A4.1 Design categories H1 and H2
A4.2 Earthquake design category H3
A5 GENERAL STRUCTURES IN DESIGN CATEGORY A
A5.1 Ductile structures
A5.2 Non-ductile structures
A6 GENERAL STRUCTURES IN DESIGN CATEGORY B
A6.1 Ductile structures
A6.2 Non-ductile structures
A7 GENERAL STRUCTURES IN DESIGN CATEGORIES C, D AND E
A7.1 Ductile structures
A7.2 Non-ductile structures
A8 DESIGN OF MASONRY STRUCTURES FOR EARTHQUAKE LOADING
A8.1 General
A8.2 Structural response factor (Rf) and deflection amplification factor (Kd)
A8.3 Shear capacity of unreinforced masonry
A9 DESIGN OF NON-STRUCTURAL MASONRY COMPONENTS
A9.1 General
A9.2 Earthquake coefficient (Cc1)
APPENDIX B - DETERMINATION OF CHARACTERISTIC VALUE
B1 SCOPE
B2 EVALUATION OF CHARACTERISTIC VALUE
B3 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
APPENDIX C - METHOD OF TEST FOR COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
C1 SCOPE
C2 NUMBER OF SPECIMENS PER SAMPLE
C3 PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS
C3.1 General
C3.2 Number of courses in specimens
C3.3 Stack-bonded piers
C3.4 Additional requirements for grouted masonry specimens
C3.5 Curing
C4 AGE AT TEST
C5 TRANSPORTATION
C6 TEST APPARATUS
C7 TEST PROCEDURE
C7.1 General
C7.2 Calculation of compressive strength of specimen
C8 CALCULATION OF TEST STRENGTH OF THE SAMPLE
C9 REPORTING OF RESULTS
APPENDIX D - METHOD OF TEST FOR FLEXURAL STRENGTH
D1 SCOPE
D2 NUMBER OF SPECIMENS PER SAMPLE
D3 PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS
D3.1 General
D3.2 Number of courses in a specimen
D3.3 Stack-bonded piers
D3.4 Additional requirements for grouted masonry specimens
D3.5 Curing
D4 AGE AT TEST
D5 TRANSPORTATION
D6 FLEXURAL STRENGTH BY BOND WRENCH TEST METHOD
D6.1 General
D6.2 Apparatus
D6.3 Apparatus calibration
D6.4 Test procedure
D6.5 Calculation of flexural strength of specimen
D7 FLEXURAL STRENGTH BY BEAM TEST
D7.1 Test procedure
D7.2 Calculation of flexural strength of specimen
D8 CALCULATION OF TEST STRENGTH OF THE SAMPLE
D9 REPORTING OF RESULTS
APPENDIX E - ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENTS
E1 SCOPE
E2 ATMOSPHERIC CLASSIFICATIONS (APPLICABLE TO STEEL)
APPENDIX F - Not applicable
APPENDIX G - GUIDANCE IN THE USE OF MASONRY IN RESTORATION WORK AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTED U...
G1 SCOPE
G2 GENERAL
G3 RESTRICTION ON THE USE OF TYPE M1 MORTARS
G4 MASONRY CONSTRUCTED OF SQUARE-DRESSED NATURAL STONE UNITS
G5 DESIGN PROPERTIES
G6 CONSTRUCTION
APPENDIX H - METHOD OF MEASUREMENT OF BOW
H1 SCOPE
H2 PROCEDURE
APPENDIX I - ASSESSMENT OF STRENGTH VALUES FROM TEST RESULTS
I1 SCOPE
I2 GENERAL
I3 ABNORMAL TEST RESULTS
I3.1 General
I3.2 Rejection limits
I3.3 Rejection
I4 MEAN
I5 STANDARD DEVIATION
APPENDIX J - TESTING OF IN- SITU MASONRY
J1.1 General
J1.2 Preparation for testing
J1.3 Testing
  
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