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AS 4100-1990 steel structures

Standard Number:  AS 4100-1990
Title:  steel structures
Language:  English
Replaced by Standard:  AS 4100-1998 steel structures

Revocatory Date:  2002/9/23
Status:  Withdrawn
International Classification for Standards (ICS)CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND BUILDING>>Structures of buildings>>Metal structures
Publisher:  Australia Standards(AS)
Price:  
Number of Pages:156  

Preface:   
Description:This Standard sets out minimum requirements for the design, fabrication, erection, and modification of steelwork in structures in accordance with the limit states design method. This Standard differs markedly from thw 1981 edition since it is prepared in limit state format with consequential amendments and major technical revision. It also oncorporates AS 1511, SAA High-strength Structural Bolting Code.  
Catalog:Document Contents
AS 4100-1990 STEEL STRUCTURES
PREFACE
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
1.3 DEFINITIONS
1.4 NOTATION
1.5 USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS OR METHODS
1.5.1 General
1.5.2 Existing structures
1.6 DESIGN
1.6.1 Design data
1.6.2 Design details
1.7 CONSTRUCTION
SECTION 2 MATERIALS
2.1 YIELD STRESS AND TENSILE STRENGTH USED IN DESIGN
2.1.1 Yield stress
2.1.2 Tensile strength
2.2 STRUCTURAL STEEL
2.2.1 Australian Standards
2.2.2 Acceptance of steels
2.2.3 Unidentified steel
2.3 FASTENERS
2.3.1 Steel bolts, nuts and washers
2.3.2 Equivalent high strength fasteners
2.3.3 Welds
2.3.4 Welded studs
2.3.5 Explosive fasteners
2.3.6 Anchor bolts
2.4 STEEL CASTINGS
SECTION 3 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
3.1 DESIGN
3.1.1 Aim
3.1.2 Requirements
3.2 LOADS AND OTHER ACTIONS
3.2.1 Loads
3.2.2 Other actions
3.2.3 Design load combinations
3.2.4 Notional horizontal forces
3.3 STABILITY LIMIT STATE
3.4 STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
3.5 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
3.5.1 General
3.5.2 Method
3.5.3 Deflection limits
3.5.4 Vibration of beams
3.5.5 Bolt serviceability limit state
3.5.6 Corrosion protection
3.6 STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES BY LOAD TESTING
3.7 BRITTLE FRACTURE
3.8 FATIGUE
3.9 FIRE
3.10 EARTHQUAKE
3.11 OTHER DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
SECTION 4 METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
4.1 METHODS OF DETERMINING ACTION EFFECTS
4.1.1 General
4.1.2 Definitions
4.2 FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION ASSUMED FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Rigid construction
4.2.3 Semi-rigid construction
4.2.4 Simple construction
4.2.5 Design of connections
4.3 ASSUMPTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Span length
4.3.3 Arrangements of live loads for buildings
4.3.4 Simple construction
4.4 ELASTIC ANALYSIS
4.4.1 General
4.4.2 First-order elastic analysis
4.5 PLASTIC ANALYSIS
4.5.1 Application
4.5.2 Limitations
4.5.3 Assumptions of analysis
4.5.4 Second order effects
4.6 MEMBER BUCKLING ANALYSIS
4.6.1 General
4.6.2 Member elastic buckling load
4.6.3 Member effective length factor
4.7 FRAME BUCKLING ANALYSIS
4.7.1 General
4.7.2 In-plane frame buckling
SECTION 5 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO BENDING
5.1 DESIGN FOR BENDING MOMENT
5.2 SECTION MOMENT CAPACITY FOR BENDING ABOUT A PRINCIPAL AXIS
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Section slenderness
5.2.3 Compact sections
5.2.4 Non-compact sections
5.2.5 Slender sections
5.2.6 Elastic and plastic section moduli
5.3 MEMBER CAPACITY OF SEGMENTS WITH FULL LATERAL RESTRAINT
5.3.1 Member capacity
5.3.2 Segments with full lateral restraint
5.3.3 Critical section
5.4 RESTRAINTS
5.4.1 General
5.4.2 Restraints at a cross-section
5.4.3 Restraining elements
5.5 CRITICAL FLANGE
5.5.1 General
5.5.2 Segments with both ends restrained
5.5.3 Segments with one end unrestrained
5.6 MEMBER CAPACITY OF SEGMENTS WITHOUT FULL LATERAL RESTRAINT
5.6.1 Segments fully or partially restrained at both ends
5.6.2 Segments unrestrained at one end
5.6.3 Effective length
5.6.4 Design by buckling analysis
5.7 BENDING IN A NON-PRINCIPAL PLANE
5.7.1 Deflections constrained to a non?principal plane
5.7.2 Deflections unconstrained
5.8 SEPARATORS AND DIAPHRAGMS
5.9 DESIGN OF WEBS
5.9.1 General
5.9.2 Definition of web panel
5.9.3 Minimum thickness of web panel
5.10 ARRANGEMENT OF WEBS
5.10.1 Unstiffened webs
5.10.2 Load bearing stiffeners
5.10.3 Side reinforcing plates
5.10.4 Transversely stiffened webs
5.10.5 Webs with longitudinal and transverse stiffeners
5.10.6 Webs of members designed plastically
5.10.7 Openings in webs
5.11 SHEAR CAPACITY OF WEBS
5.11.1 Shear capacity
5.11.2 Approximately uniform shear stress distribution
5.11.3 Non?uniform shear stress distribution
5.11.4 Shear yield capacity
5.11.5 Shear buckling capacity
5.12 INTERACTION OF SHEAR AND BENDING
5.12.1 General
5.12.2 Proportioning method
5.12.3 Shear and bending interaction method
5.13 COMPRESSIVE BEARING ACTION ON THE EDGE OF A WEB
5.13.1 Dispersion of force to web
5.13.2 Bearing capacity
5.13.3 Bearing yield capacity
5.13.4 Bearing buckling capacity
5.13.5 Combined bending and bearing of rectangular and square hollow sections
5.14 DESIGN OF LOAD BEARING STIFFENERS
5.14.1 Yield capacity
5.14.2 Buckling capacity
5.14.3 Outstand of stiffeners
5.14.4 Fitting of load bearing stiffeners
5.14.5 Design for torsional end restraint
5.15 DESIGN OF INTERMEDIATE TRANSVERSE WEB STIFFENERS
5.15.1 General
5.15.2 Spacing
5.15.3 Minimum area
5.15.4 Buckling capacity
5.15.5 Minimum stiffness
5.15.6 Outstand of stiffeners
5.15.7 External forces
5.15.8 Connection of intermediate stiffeners to web
5.15.9 End posts
5.16 DESIGN OF LONGITUDINAL WEB STIFFENERS
5.16.1 General
5.16.2 Minimum stiffness
SECTION 6 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO AXIAL COMPRESSION
6.1 DESIGN FOR AXIAL COMPRESSION
6.2 NOMINAL SECTION CAPACITY
6.2.1 General
6.2.2 Form factor
6.2.3 Plate element slenderness
6.2.4 Effective width
6.3 NOMINAL MEMBER CAPACITY
6.3.1 Definitions
6.3.2 Effective length
6.3.3 Nominal capacity of a member of constant cross-section
6.3.4 Nominal capacity of a member of varying cross?section
6.4 LACED AND BATTENED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
6.4.1 Design forces
6.4.2 Laced compression members
6.4.3 Battened compression member
6.5 COMPRESSION MEMBERS BACK TO BACK
6.5.1 Components separated
6.5.2 Components in contact
6.6 RESTRAINTS
6.6.1 Restraint systems
6.6.2 Restraining members and connections
6.6.3 Parallel braced compression members
SECTION 7 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO AXIAL TENSION
7.1 DESIGN FOR AXIAL TENSION
7.2 NOMINAL SECTION CAPACITY
7.3 DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES
7.3.1 End connections providing uniform force distribution
7.3.2 End connections providing non-uniform force distribution
7.4 TENSION MEMBERS WITH TWO OR MORE MAIN COMPONENTS
7.4.1 General
7.4.2 Design forces for connections
7.4.3 Tension member composed of two components back-to-back
7.4.4 Laced tension member
7.4.5 Battened tension member
7.5 MEMBERS WITH PIN CONNECTIONS
SECTION 8 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO COMBINED ACTIONS
8.1 GENERAL
8.2 DESIGN ACTIONS
8.3 SECTION CAPACITY
8.3.1 General
8.3.2 Uniaxial bending about the major principal x-axis
8.3.3 Uniaxial bending about the minor principal y-axis
8.3.4 Biaxial bending
8.4 MEMBER CAPACITY
8.4.1 General
8.4.2 In-plane capacity - elastic analysis
8.4.3 In-plane capacity - plastic analysis
8.4.4 Out-of-plane capacity
8.4.5 Biaxial bending capacity
8.4.6 Eccentrically loaded double bolted or welded single angles in trusses
SECTION 9 CONNECTIONS
9.1 GENERAL
9.1.1 Requirements for connections
9.1.2 Classification of connections
9.1.3 Design of connections
9.1.4 Minimum design actions on connections
9.1.5 Intersections
9.1.6 Choice of fasteners
9.1.7 Combined connections
9.1.8 Prying forces
9.1.9 Connection components
9.1.10 Deductions for fastener holes
9.1.11 Hollow section connections
9.2 DEFINITIONS
9.3 DESIGN OF BOLTS
9.3.1 Bolts and bolting category
9.3.2 Bolt strength limit states
9.3.3 Bolt serviceability limit state
9.4 ASSESSMENT OF THE STRENGTH OF A BOLT GROUP
9.4.1 Bolt group subject to in-plane loading
9.4.2 Bolt group subject to out-of-plane loading
9.4.3 Bolt group subject to combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane loadings
9.5 DESIGN OF A PIN CONNECTION
9.5.1 Pin in shear
9.5.2 Pin in bearing
9.5.3 Pin in bending
9.5.4 Ply in bearing
9.6 DESIGN DETAILS FOR BOLTS AND PINS
9.6.1 Minimum pitch
9.6.2 Minimum edge distance
9.6.3 Maximum pitch
9.6.4 Maximum edge distance
9.6.5 Holes
9.7 DESIGN OF WELDS
9.7.1 Scope
9.7.2 Complete and incomplete penetration butt welds
9.7.3 Fillet welds
9.7.4 Plug and slot welds
9.7.5 Compound weld
9.8 ASSESSMENT OF THE STRENGTH OF A WELD GROUP
9.8.1 Weld group subject to in-plane loading
9.8.2 Weld group subject to out-of-plane loading
9.8.3 Weld group subject to in-plane and out-of-plane loading
9.8.4 Combination of weld types
9.9 PACKING IN CONSTRUCTION
SECTION 10 BRITTLE FRACTURE
10.1 METHODS
10.2 NOTCH-DUCTILE RANGE METHOD
10.3 DESIGN SERVICE TEMPERATURE
10.3.1 Basic design temperature
10.3.2 Modifications to the basic design temperature
10.4 MATERIAL SELECTION
10.4.1 Selection of steel type
10.4.2 Limitations
10.4.3 Modification for certain applications
10.4.4 Selection of steel grade
10.5 FRACTURE ASSESSMENT
SECTION 11 FATIGUE
11.1 GENERAL
11.1.1 Requirements
11.1.2 Definitions
11.1.3 Notation
11.1.4 Limitation
11.1.5 Designation of weld category
11.1.6 Method
11.1.7 Thickness effect
11.2 FATIGUE LOADING
11.3 DESIGN SPECTRUM
11.3.1 Stress determination
11.3.2 Design spectrum calculation
11.4 EXEMPTION FROM ASSESSMENT
11.5 DETAIL CATEGORY
11.5.1 Detail categories for normal stress
11.5.2 Detail categories for shear stress
11.6 FATIGUE STRENGTH
11.6.1 Definition of fatigue strength for normal stress
11.6.2 Definition of fatigue strength for shear stress
11.7 EXEMPTION FROM FURTHER ASSESSMENT
11.8 FATIGUE ASSESSMENT
11.8.1 Constant stress range
11.8.2 Variable stress range
11.9 PUNCHING LIMITATION
SECTION 12 FIRE
12.1 REQUIREMENTS
12.2 DEFINITIONS
12.3 DETERMINATION OF PERIOD OF STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY
12.4 VARIATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL WITH TEMPERATURE
12.4.1 Variation of yield stress with temperature
12.4.2 Variation of modulus of elasticity with temperature
12.5 DETERMINATION OF LIMITING STEEL TEMPERATURE
12.6 DETERMINATION OF TIME AT WHICH LIMITING TEMPERATURE IS ATTAINED FOR PROTECTED MEMBE...
12.6.1 Methods
12.6.2 Temperature based on test series
12.6.3 Temperature based on single test
12.7 DETERMINATION OF TIME AT WHICH LIMITING TEMPERATURE IS ATTAINED FOR UNPROTECTED MEM...
12.8 DETERMINATION OF PSA FROM A SINGLE TEST
12.9 THREE-SIDED FIRE EXPOSURE CONDITION
12.10 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
12.10.1 Connections
12.10.2 Web penetrations
SECTION 13 EARTHQUAKE
13.1 GENERAL
13.2 DEFINITIONS
13.3 DESIGN AND DETAILING REQUIREMENTS
13.3.1 General
13.3.2 Requirements for structures of earthquake Design Categories A and B
13.3.3 Requirements for structures of earthquake Design Category C
13.3.4 Requirements for structures of earthquake Design Categories D and E
13.4 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-BUILDING STRUCTURES
SECTION 14 FABRICATION
14.1 GENERAL
14.2 MATERIAL
14.2.1 General
14.2.2 Identification
14.3 FABRICATION PROCEDURES
14.3.1 Methods
14.3.2 Full contact splices
14.3.3 Cutting
14.3.4 Welding
14.3.5 Holing
14.3.6 Bolting
14.3.7 Pinned connection
14.4 TOLERANCES
14.4.1 General
14.4.2 Notation
14.4.3 Cross-section
14.4.4 Compression member
14.4.5 Beam
14.4.6 Tension member
SECTION 15 ERECTION
15.1 GENERAL
15.1.1 Rejection of an erected item
15.1.2 Safety during erection
15.1.3 Equipment support
15.1.4 Reference temperature
15.2 ERECTION PROCEDURES
15.2.1 General
15.2.2 Delivery, storage and handling
15.2.3 Assembly and alignment
15.2.4 Assembly of a connection involving tensioned bolts
15.2.5 Methods of tensioning
15.3 TOLERANCES
15.3.1 Location of anchor bolts
15.3.2 Column base
15.3.3 Plumbing of a compression member
15.3.4 Column splice
15.3.5 Level and alignment of a beam
15.3.6 Position of a tension member
15.3.7 Overall building dimensions
15.4 INSPECTION OF BOLTED CONNECTIONS
15.4.1 Tensioned bolts
15.4.2 Damaged items
15.5 GROUTING AT SUPPORTS
15.5.1 Compression member base or beam
15.5.2 Grouting
SECTION 16 MODIFICATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES
16.1 GENERAL
16.2 MATERIALS
16.3 CLEANING
16.4 SPECIAL PROVISIONS
16.4.1 Welding and cutting
16.4.2 Welding sequence
SECTION 17 TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR ELEMENTS
17.1 GENERAL
17.1.1 Scope of Section
17.1.2 Circumstances requiring tests
17.2 DEFINITIONS
17.3 TEST REQUIREMENTS
17.4 PROOF TESTING
17.4.1 Application
17.4.2 Test load
17.4.3 Criteria for acceptance
17.5 PROTOTYPE TESTING
17.5.1 Test specimen
17.5.2 Test load
17.5.3 Criteria for acceptance
17.5.4 Acceptance of production units
17.6 REPORT OF TESTS
APPENDIX A - REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
APPENDIX B - SUGGESTED DEFLECTION LIMITS
B1 SUGGESTED VERTICAL DEFLECTION LIMITS FOR BEAMS
B2 SUGGESTED HORIZONTAL DEFLECTION LIMITS
APPENDIX C - CORROSION PROTECTION
C1 SCOPE
C2 SYSTEMS
C3 STANDARDS
C4 INACCESSIBLE SURFACES
C5 PROTECTION DURING TRANSPORT AND HANDLING AFTER CORROSION PROTEC- TION
C6 REPAIRS TO CORROSION PROTECTION
C7 RELEVANT STANDARDS
APPENDIX D - ADVANCED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
D1 GENERAL
D2 DESIGN
APPENDIX E - SECOND ORDER ELASTIC ANALYSIS
E1 ANALYSIS
E2 DESIGN BENDING MOMENT
APPENDIX F - MOMENT AMPLIFICATION FOR A SWAY MEMBER
APPENDIX G - BRACED MEMBER BUCKLING IN FRAMES
APPENDIX H - ELASTIC RESISTANCE TO LATERAL BUCKLING
H1 GENERAL
H2 SEGMENTS RESTRAINED AT BOTH ENDS
H3 SEGMENTS UNRESTRAINED AT ONE END
H4 REFERENCE ELASTIC BUCKLING MOMENT
H5 EFFECTS OF END RESTRAINTS
H5.1 Torsional end restraints
H5.2 End restraints against lateral rotation
H5.2.1 Segments restrained at both ends
H5.2.2 Segments unrestrained at one end
H6 REFERENCES
APPENDIX I - STRENGTH OF STIFFENED WEB PANELS UNDER COMBINED ACTIONS
I1 YIELDING CHECK
I2 BUCKLING CHECK
APPENDIX J - STANDARD TEST FOR EVALUATION OF SLIP FACTOR
J1 TEST SPECIMENS
J1.1 Form
J1.2 Assembly and measurement
J1.3 Number of specimens
J2 INSTRUMENTATION
J3 METHOD OF TESTING
J4 SLIP LOAD
J5 SLIP FACTOR
APPENDIX K - INSPECTION OF BOLT TENSION USING A TORQUE WRENCH
K1 GENERAL
K2 CALIBRATION
K3 INSPECTION
K4 ACTION
INDEX
  
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