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AS/NZS 2211.1-1997 laser safety - equipment classification, requirements and user s guide

Standard Number:  AS/NZS 2211.1-1997
Title:  laser safety - equipment classification, requirements and user s guide
Language:  English
Replacing Standard:  AS 2211-1991 laser safety

Status:  Withdrawn
International Classification for Standards (ICS)ELECTRONICS>>Optoelectronics. Laser equipment
Publisher:  Australia Standards(AS)
Price:  
Number of Pages:106  

Preface:   
Description:Specifies requirements and procedures designed to protect persons from laser radiation. Intended for application both by users and manufacturers of laser products. It specifies safe working levels of optical radiation, classifies lasers according to their degree of hazard and sets out detailed protective and control measures appropriate to each class. A statement on the effect of laser radiation on biological tissues is given in an Appendix, and other appendices cover maximum permissible exposures, calculations, a medical surveillance chart, and the design of warning labels and signs. It is based on, but not equivalent to IEC 825-1-1993.  
Catalog:Document Contents
AS/NZS 2211.1:1997 LASER SAFETY - EQUIPMENT CLASSIFICATION, REQUIREMENTS AND USER'S GUIDE
PREFACE
CONTENTS
FOREWORD - USER'S GUIDE-FLOW CHART
SECTION 1 GENERAL
1 SCOPE AND OBJECT
1.1 Scope
1.2 Object
1.2.1 Classification
1.2.2 Precaution
1.2.3 Warning
1.2.4 Injury reduction
1.2.5 Protection
2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
3 DEFINITIONS
3.1 Access panel
3.2 Accessible emission limit (AEL)
3.3 Administrative control
3.4 Alignment laser product
3.5 Alpha min.
3.6 Angular subtense
3.7 Aperture, aperture stop
3.8 Apparent source
3.9 Beam attenuator
3.10 Beam diameter
3.11 Beam divergence
3.12 Beam expander
3.13 Beam path component
3.14 Beam stop
3.15 Class 1 laser product
3.16 Class 2 laser product
3.17 Class 3A, Class 3B and Class 3B (Restricted) laser products
3.17.1 Class 3A and Class 3B laser products
3.17.2 Class 3B (Restricted) laser product
3.18 Class 4 laser product
3.19 Collateral radiation
3.20 Collimated beam
3.21 Continuous wave (CW)
3.22 Defined beam path
3.23 Demonstration laser product
3.24 Diffuse reflection
3.25 Embedded laser product
3.26 Emission duration
3.27 Errant laser radiation
3.28 Exposure time
3.29 Extended source viewing
3.30 Failure to safety
3.31 Failure to safety interlock
3.32 Human access
3.33 Integrated radiance
3.34 Intrabeam viewing
3.35 Irradiance
3.36 Laser
3.37 Laser controlled area
3.38 Laser energy source
3.39 Laser hazard area
3.40 Laser fibre optic transmission system
3.41 Laser product
3.42 Laser radiation
3.43 Laser safety officer
3.44 Laser system
3.45 Levelling laser product
3.46 Light emitting diode (LED)
3.47 Limiting aperture
3.48 Maintenance
3.49 Maximum angular subtense
3.50 Maximum output
3.51 Maximum permissible exposure (MPE)
3.52 Medical laser product
3.53 Minimum angular subtense
3.54 Mode-locking
3.55 Nominal ocular hazard area (NOHA)
3.56 Nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD)
3.57 Operation
3.58 Protective enclosure
3.59 Protective housing
3.60 Pulse duration
3.61 Pulsed laser
3.62 Radiance
3.63 Radiant energy
3.64 Radiant exposure
3.65 Radiant power; radiant flux
3.66 Reflectance
3.67 Remote interlock connector
3.68 Safety interlock
3.69 Scanning laser radiation
3.70 Service
3.71 Service connection
3.72 Service panel
3.73 Single element failure (single fault condition)
3.74 Specular reflection
3.75 Surveying laser product
3.76 Tool
3.77 Transmittance
3.78 Transmittance (optical) density
3.79 Visible radiation (light)
3.80 Workpiece
3.81 Accessible emission level
3.82 Alpha max
3.83 Attenuation
3.84 Infrared radiation
3.85 Laser worker
3.86 Manufacturer
3.87 Mode field diameter (MFD)
3.88 Optical fibre
3.89 Optical fibre system
3.90 Repetitively pulsed laser
3.91 Scintillation
3.92 Shall
3.93 Should
3.94 Ultraviolet radiation
SECTION 2 MANUFACTURING REQUIREMENTS
4 ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS
4.1 General remarks
4.1.1 Modification
4.2 Protective housing
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Service
4.2.3 Removable laser system
4.3 Access panels and safety interlocks
4.3.1 Safety interlocks
4.3.2 Override mechanisms
4.4 Remote interlock connector
4.5 Key control
4.6 Laser radiation emission warning
4.6.1 Warning devices
4.6.2 Warning device distances
4.6.3 Aperture indication
4.7 Beam stop or attenuator
4.8 Controls
4.9 Viewing optics
4.10 Scanning safeguard
4.11 Alignment aids
4.12 ` Walk-in' access
4.13 Environmental conditions
4.14 Protection against other hazards
4.14.1 Non-optical hazards
4.14.2 Collateral radiation
5 LABELLING
5.1 General
5.2 Class 1
5.3 Class 2
5.4 Class 3A
5.5 Class 3B
5.6 Class 4
5.7 Aperture label
5.8 Radiation output and Standards information
5.9 Labels for access panels
5.9.1 Labels for panels
5.9.2 Labels for safety interlocked panels
5.10 Warning for invisible laser radiation
5.11 Warning for visible laser radiation
5.12 Warning for LED radiation
6 OTHER INFORMATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
6.1 Information for the user
6.2 Purchasing and servicing information
7 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC LASER PRODUCTS
7.1 Medical laser products
7.2 Laser fibre optic transmission system
8 TESTS
8.1 General
8.2 Measurements of laser radiation for determining classification
9 CLASSIFICATION
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Description of laser class
9.3 Classification procedures
9.4 Repetitively pulsed or modulated lasers
9.5 Short emission durations
SECTION 3 USER' S GUIDE
10 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
10.1 Primary hazards
10.2 Hazards incidental to laser operation
10.2.1 General
10.2.2 Atmospheric contamination
10.2.3 Collateral radiation hazards
10.3 Electrical hazards
10.4 Cryogenic coolants
10.5 Materials processing
10.6 Other hazards
10.7 Optical fibre systems
10.8 Additional hazards from optical fibres
11 HAZARD EVALUATION AND CONTROL MEASURES
11.1 Risk assessment
11.2 Hierarchy of control measures
11.3 Personal protection
11.4 Outdoor laser installations
11.4.1 Class 2 laser products
11.4.2 Class 3A laser products
11.4.3 Class 3BR laser products
11.4.4 Class 3B and Class 4 laser products
11.4.5 Lasers for surveying, alignment, and levelling
11.4.6 NOHD for Class 3B and Class 4 lasers used outdoors
11.5 Laser demonstrations, displays andexhibitions
11.6 Laboratory and workshop laser installations
11.6.1 Class 2 and Class 3A laser products
11.6.2 Class 3B laser products
11.6.3 Class 4 laser products
12 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
12.1 General
12.2 Use of remote interlock connector
12.3 Key control
12.4 Beam stop or attenuator
12.5 Warning signs
12.6 Beam paths
12.7 Specular reflections
12.8 Eye protection
12.8.1 General
12.8.2 Identification of eyewear
12.8.3 Required optical density
12.8.4 Protective eyewear
12.9 Optical fibre systems-Inspection
12.10 Optical fibre systems-Safe viewing procedures
12.11 Optical fibre systems-Fibre preparation
12.12 Protective clothing
12.13 Training
12.14 Medical surveillance
12.14.1 General
12.14.2 Eye examination of laser workers at commencement and termination of employment
12.14.3 Examination for possible injurious exposure from lasers
13 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURES
13.1 General remarks
13.2 Limiting apertures
13.3 Repetitively pulsed or modulated lasers
13.3.1 Short emission durations
13.4 Measurement conditions
13.4.1 General
13.4.2 Minimum measurement distance
13.4.3 Apparent sources
13.5 Extended source lasers
APPENDIX A - EXAMPLES OF CALCULATIONS
A1 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE (MPE) - INTRODUCTION
A2 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE (MPE) - INTRABEAM VIEWING
A3 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURES (MPE) - DIFFUSE REFLECTIONS AND EXTENDED SOURCES
A4 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE (MPE) - REPETITIVELY PULSED SYSTEMS
A5 NOMINAL OCULAR HAZARD DISTANCE (NOHD)
A6 ACCESSIBLE EMISSION LIMITS FOR DIVERGING BEAM, POINT-TYPE SOURCES
APPENDIX B - MEDICAL CONSIDERATIONS
B1 ANATOMY OF THE EYE
B2 THE EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON BIOLOGICAL TISSUE
B2.1 General
B2.2 Hazards to the eye
B2.3 Skin hazards
APPENDIX C - BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX D - SUMMARY TABLES
APPENDIX E - HIGH POWER LASER CONSIDERATIONS PARTICULARLY APPROPRIATE TO MATERIALS PROCES...
E1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
E2 ERRANT LASER RADIATION
E2.1 Fault conditions
E2.2 Engineering features
E2.3 Additional instructions
E3 DESIGN OF PROTECTIVE HOUSINGS
E3.1 Protective housing
E3.2 Passive guards
E3.3 Active guards
E4 BEAM STOP
E5 OTHER CONDITIONS
E5.1 Laser exposure of housing and components
E5.2 Associated hazards
APPENDIX F - EYE EXAMINATION AT COMMENCEMENT AND TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT OF LASER WORKE...
APPENDIX G - RELATED STANDARDS
  
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