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AS/NZS 2772.2-2011 radiofrequency fields part 2: principles and methods of measurement and computation-3khz to 300 ghz

Standard Number:  AS/NZS 2772.2-2011
Title:  radiofrequency fields part 2: principles and methods of measurement and computation-3khz to 300 ghz
Language:  English
Replaced by Standard:  AS/NZS 2772.2:2016

Replacing Standard:  NZS 6609.2:1990AA

Status:  Current
Publisher:  Australia Standards(AS)
Price:  
Number of Pages:105  

Description:Specifies techniques and instrumentation for the assessment of human exposure to electromagnetic fields in both near-field and far-field situations in the frequency range 3 kHz to 300 GHz. Assessments can be performed through measurement or computation for the purpose of demonstrating compliance or non compliance to the human exposure Reference Levels such as those of the ARPANSA Standard RPS3 and NZS 2772.1. It also describes the process for making computations of quantities for comparison with Basic Restrictions. This Standard does not address the measurement of the Basic Restrictions described in RPS3 and NZS 2772.1 such as specific absorption rate (SAR) and induced current density.  
Catalog:Document Contents
AS/NZS 2772.2:2011 RADIOFREQUENCY FIELDS - PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENT AND COMP...
PREFACE
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
1.3 DEFINITIONS
1.3.1 Antenna
1.3.2 Antenna aperture
1.3.3 Antenna array
1.3.4 Antenna directivity
1.3.5 Antenna-effective aperture or effective area
1.3.6 Antenna factor
1.3.7 Antenna gain (absolute gain in a given direction)
1.3.8 Antenna gain, partial (for a given polarization)
1.3.9 Antenna lobe
1.3.10 Antenna pattern
1.3.11 Basic restrictions
1.3.12 Compliance
1.3.13 Compliance boundary
1.3.14 Conductivity (σ)
1.3.15 Contact current (Ic)
1.3.16 Current density (J)
1.3.17 Current probe
1.3.18 Decibel (dB)
1.3.19 Diode
1.3.20 Dipole
1.3.21 Duty factor
1.3.22 Electric field strength (E)
1.3.23 Electromagnetic field (EMF)
1.3.24 EME, EMR
1.3.25 Equivalent plane wave power flux density (Seq)
1.3.26 Fixed RF source
1.3.27 Half-power beamwidth
1.3.28 Impedance (Z)
1.3.29 Incident power flux density (Sinc)
1.3.30 Integral antenna
1.3.31 Internal electric field strength (Eint)
1.3.32 Isotropic
1.3.33 Limb current (IL)
1.3.34 Linearity
1.3.35 Localized SAR
1.3.36 Magnetic field strength (H)
1.3.37 Mobile or portable radio communication device
1.3.38 Microwaves
1.3.39 Modulation
1.3.40 Multi-path transmission (radio propagation)
1.3.41 Occupational limits
1.3.42 Permittivity (ε)
1.3.43 Phantom
1.3.44 Polarization (radiated wave)
1.3.45 Power flux density (S)
1.3.46 Poynting vector (S)
1.3.47 Probe
1.3.48 Public limits
1.3.49 Radiation
1.3.50 Radiofrequency
1.3.51 Reactive field
1.3.52 Reference levels
1.3.53 Re-radiated field
1.3.54 RF emitter
1.3.55 RF exposure
1.3.56 RF field strength meter
1.3.57 RF personal monitor
1.3.58 Root mean square (rms)
1.3.59 Specific absorption (SA)
1.3.60 Specific absorption rate (SAR)
1.3.61 Standing wave
1.3.62 Uncertainty
1.3.63 Unperturbed field
1.3.64 Whole body average SAR
1.4 ACRONYMS AND SYMBOLS
SECTION 2 SUMMARY OF PROVISIONS
SECTION 3 GENERAL ASSESSMENT PROCESSES
3.1 GENERAL
3.2 ASSESSOR COMPETENCY
3.3 ASSESSMENT PROCESS OVERVIEW
3.4 DEFINITION OF ASSESSMENT TASK
3.5 DETERMINATION OF SOURCE AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT CHARACTERISTICS
3.6 DETERMINATION OF APPLICABLE EXPOSURE LIMITS
3.7 PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT
3.7.1 General
3.7.2 Safety requirements
3.7.3 RF exposure evaluation not required
3.8 CHOICE OF ASSESSMENT METHOD (MEASUREMENT OR COMPUTATION)
3.9 ASSESSMENT BY MEASUREMENT
3.9.1 General
3.9.2 Choice of measurement technique
3.9.3 Measurement procedures
3.9.4 Post-processing and finalizing results
3.10 ASSESSMENT BY COMPUTATION
3.10.1 General
3.10.2 Finalizing computation results
3.11 REPORTING OF RESULTS
SECTION 4 POST-PROCESSING
4.1 GENERAL
4.2 SPATIAL AVERAGING
4.3 SIMULTANEOUS EXPOSURE TO MULTIPLE FREQUENCY FIELDS
4.4 EXTRAPOLATION
SECTION 5 CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION
5.1 GENERAL
5.2 TEST INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION REQUIREMENTS
5.3 CALIBRATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS
5.4 RECOMMENDED INTERVALS OF CALIBRATION
5.5 PERIODIC CHECKING OF INSTRUMENTATION
5.6 VALIDATION OF COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS
5.7 CHECKING AND REVERIFICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS
SECTION 6 UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATION
6.1 REQUIREMENT FOR UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS
6.2 REPORTING OF ASSESSMENT RESULTS AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSES
6.3 THE ROLE OF UNCERTAINTY IN COMPLIANCE ASSESSMENTS
APPENDIX A - RF MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION AND DESIRABLE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
A1 PERSONAL MONITORS
A2 E, H AND S BROADBAND MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION
A2.1 Instrumentation for external field measurements
A2.2 Field strength power density meters
A2.3 Instrument types for external field measurements
A2.4 Diode rectifier
A2.5 Thermocouple devices
A2.6 Continuous film type devices
A2.7 Active antenna
A2.8 Displacement current sensors
A2.9 Electro-optical (photonic) sensors
A2.10 Combined electric and magnetic field probes
A2.11 Shaped-frequency response
A3 E, H AND S FREQUENCY SELECTIVE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION
A3.1 Receivers and spectrum analysers
A3.2 Spectrum analysers
A3.3 Portable spectrum analyser with broadband probe
A3.4 Tuneable field strength meters
A3.5 Calibrated antennas
A3.6 Coaxial cables
A4 CURRENT MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION
A4.1 Current measurements
A4.2 Broadband instrumentation-Desirable performance characteristics
A5 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
A5.1 Portability
A5.2 Durability
A5.3 Effects of temperature
A5.4 Display
A5.5 Adjustments
A5.6 Ease of use
A6 ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
A6.1 Power supply
A6.2 Polarization factor
A6.3 Display units
A6.4 Dynamic range and frequency range
A6.5 Coupling and response to other radiations
A6.6 Shielding
A6.7 Out-of-band response
A6.8 Modulation
A6.9 Static electricity
A6.10 Recorder output
A6.11 Response time
A6.12 Special features
A6.13 Stability
APPENDIX B - FIELD REGIONS
APPENDIX C - MEASUREMENT
C1 GENERAL
C2 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
C3 SURVEY PRECAUTIONS
C4 LEAKAGE SURVEY PRECAUTIONS
C5 GENERAL MEASUREMENT CONSIDERATIONS
C6 FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE METHOD
C7 BROADBAND METHOD
C8 FACTORS INFLUENCING MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
C9 GENERAL MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES
C9.1 General
C9.2 General measurement approach
C9.3 Near-field measurement
C9.4 Leakage radiation
C10 ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE MEASUREMENT
C10.1 General
C10.2 Frequency-selective system overview
C11 SPECTRUM ANALYSER CONSIDERATIONS
C12 ANTENNAS AND CABLES
C13 CURRENT MEASUREMENTS
C13.1 General
C13.2 Induced and contact current limits
C13.3 Limb current measurements
C13.4 Contact current measurements
C14 TOUCH AND LIMB CURRENT MEASUREMENTS
C14.1 General
C14.2 Freestanding measurements
C14.3 Measurements while making contact with RF energized conductors
APPENDIX D - UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES
D1 GENERAL APPROACH
D2 EXAMPLE INFLUENCE QUANTITIES FOR E AND H FIELD MEASUREMENTS
D2.1 General
D2.2 Calibration uncertainty of measurement equipment
D2.3 Frequency response of the field probe
D2.4 Isotropicity variation of the field probe
D2.5 Temperature and humidity response of the instrument
D2.6 Linearity deviation of the field probe
D2.7 Mismatch uncertainty
D2.8 Mental averaging of meter fluctuations for modulated sources
D2.9 Uncertainty due to power variation in the RF source
D2.10 Uncertainty due to variation in the location of the field probe
D2.11 Uncertainty due to field scattering from the measurer
D2.12 Uncertainty due to field scattering from the environment
D3 EXAMPLE INFLUENCE QUANTITIES FOR E AND H FIELD CALCULATIONS
D3.1 General
D3.2 Accuracy of the modelling technique
D3.3 Radiated power of the antenna
D3.4 Gain of the antenna
D3.5 Scattering effects from nearby objects and the ground
D4 EXAMPLE UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT SHEETS
D5 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
APPENDIX E - RF COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS
E1 INTRODUCTION
E2 APPLICABILITY
E3 CALCULATION METHODS
E3.1 Basic formulas
E3.2 Estimating far-fields
E3.3 Estimating radiating near-fields
E3.4 Scanning correction
E4 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF FIELD VALUES AND SAR USING FULL WAVE TECHNIQUES
E4.1 Fields
E4.2 SAR
E5 VALIDATION
E5.1 General
E5.2 Internal checks
E5.3 External checks
E6 UNCERTAINTY
E6.1 General
E6.2 Ray tracing
E6.3 Full wave modelling
E7 REFERENCE MATERIAL
E8 OTHER USEFUL MATERIAL
APPENDIX F - FACTORS INFLUENCING MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
F1 GENERAL
F2 SPURIOUS RESPONSES
F3 LEAD PICK-UP
F4 THERMOELECTRIC LEAD EFFECT
F5 ELECTROSTATIC PICK-UP
F6 COUPLING INTO PROBES
F7 STATIC CHARGE FIELDS
F8 OUT-OF-BAND RESPONSES
F9 PULSE MODULATION
F10 PERTURBATION
F11 INSTRUMENTATION USAGE CONSIDERATIONS
APPENDIX G - OTHER HAZARDS AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
G1 GENERAL
G2 PRECAUTIONS IN THE SURVEY PROCESS
G3 RADIATION SYSTEMS SURVEY PRECAUTIONS
G4 LEAKAGE SURVEY PRECAUTIONS
G5 HAZARDS NOT DIRECTLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE SURVEY
APPENDIX H - EXAMPLE RF MEASUREMENT OF AN RF WELDER
APPENDIX I - EXAMPLE MOBILE TELEPHONE BASE STATION ASSESSMENT
I1 GENERAL
I2 ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW
I2.1 Site operator information
I2.2 Site environment
I2.3 Exposure safety limits
I3 ASSESSMENT PLAN
I3.1 Pre-assessment review
I3.2 Select assessment method
I3.3 Complete the assessment plan
I3.4 General methodology-Field evaluation spatially averaged
I4 RESULTS
I4.1 Results summary-Desktop computer modelling
I4.2 Measurement Results summary
I4.3 Interpretation of Results
I5 ASSESSMENT REPORT-UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SPATIALLY AVERAGED FIELD STRENGTH MEASUREMENT
I6 SAMPLE MEASUREMENT SCANS
I7 CONCLUSIONS
  
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