This test method may be used for material development, quality control, characterization, and design data generation purposes. This test method is intended to be used with ceramics whose flexural strength is 8764; 50 MPa (8764; 7 ksi) or greater.
The flexure stress is computed based on simple beam theory, with assumptions that the material is isotropic and homogeneous, the moduli of elasticity in tension and compression are identical, and the material is linearly elastic. The average grain size should be no greater than 1/50 of the beam thickness. The homogeneity and isotropy assumptions in the test method rule out the use of it for continuous fiber-reinforced composites for which Test Method C 1341 is more appropriate.
The flexural strength of a group of test specimens is influenced by several parameters associated with the test procedure. Such factors include the testing rate, test environment, specimen size, specimen preparation, and test fixtures. Specimen and fixture sizes were chosen to provide a balance between the practical configurations and resulting errors as discussed in MIL-STD 1942(A), Test Method C 1161, and Refs (1x2013;3). Specific fixture and specimen configurations were designated in order to permit the ready comparison of data without the need for Weibull size scaling.
The flexural strength of a ceramic material is dependent on both its inherent resistance to fracture and the size and severity of flaws. Variations in these cause a natural scatter in test results for a sample of test specimens. Fractographic analysis of fracture surfaces, although beyond the scope of this test method, is highly recommended for all purposes, especially if the data will be used for design as discussed in MIL STD 1942 (A) and Ref (4) and Practices C 1322 and C 1239.
This method determines the flexural strength at elevated temperature and ambient environmental conditions at a nominal, moderately fast testing rate. The flexural strength under these conditions may or may not necessarily be the inert flexural strength. Flexure strength at elevated temperature may be strongly dependent on testing rate, a consequence of creep, stress corrosion, or slow crack growth. If the purpose of the test is to measure the inert flexural strength, then extra precautions are required and faster testing rates may be necessary.
Note 68212;Many ceramics are susceptible to either environmentally-assisted slow crack growth or thermally activated slow crack growth. Oxide ceramics, glasses, glass ceramics, and ceramics containing boundary phase glass are particularly susceptible to slow crack growth. Time dependent effects that are caused by environmental factors (e.g. water as humidity in air) may be minimized through the use of inert testing atmosphere such as dry nitrogen gas or vacuum. Alternatively, testing rates faster than specified in this standard may be used if the goal is to measure the inert strength. Thermally activated slow crack growth may occur at elevated temperature even in inert atmospheres. Testing rates faster than specified in this standard should be used if the goal is to measure the inert flexural strength. On the other hand, many ceramics such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, aluminum nitride and many silicon nitrides have no sensitivity to slow crack growth at room or moderately elevated temperatures and for such materials, the flexural strength measured under in laboratory ambient conditions at the nominal testing rate is the inert flexural strength.
The three-point test configuration exposes only a very small portion ..........